Complications after tooth extraction are possible consequences
Complications after tooth extraction is not uncommon, because the extraction is complete surgery, in which there is damage to adjacent tissues. In these phenomena the body’s response is always unambiguous and is characterized by: swelling, pain, bleeding. All of these reactions are physiological and do not require a separate treatment. All the symptoms should pass in 2-3 days. But if the process is delayed, adding new symptoms as the rise of temperature, signs of intoxication, the appearance of pus, bad breath, talking about the complications and consult a doctor urgently.
The factors causing complications
The main reason for the complications is that not all deletions can be considered as simple procedures often required in the presence of inflammation to do on the gums incision for drainage, to remove obstacles in the form of bone tissue, sutures. All this creates a difficulty because the mouth is still small operative field, and manipulation is difficult. Tooth extraction is always a last resort that is performed only when to keep the tooth is not possible.
To provoke complications can:
- the presence of caries;
- lack of proper hygiene in the mouth;
- colds at the moment of operation;
- infection of the oral cavity;
- diseases of the blood and blood vessels, clotting disorder;
- harmful habits of the patient;
- taking certain medicines.
Complications can occur not only through the fault of the patient but for the dentist if the extraction was conducted too traumatic, in a hurry, in poor light, and low qualification of the doctor.
Complications of removal of wisdom teeth
The removal of permanent teeth and, in particular, of wisdom teeth — procedure is not easy because they have powerful roots. Often after the removal of this tooth and other indigenous large begins severe pain in the gums, numbness of the lips, tongue. This is called paresthesia, and says that affected the adjacent nerve. Another common complication in manipulation of the wisdom tooth — alveolitis.
Removal of a molar tooth is difficult because when running the process of inflammation in their roots often can be formed purulent cyst. Extraction 7, and 8 molars can result in the dislocation of the jaw or a fracture due to increased pressure on the jaw during the tooth removal. Moreover, these injuries are often not diagnosed in time. The reason primarily lies in the anesthesia. If the fracture or dislocation is still detected, the doctor definitely fixes the jaw and assigns anti-inflammatory therapy.
The swelling after tooth extraction
Often the appearance of edema after the removal is associated with damage to the gums. If the swelling occurred immediately after surgery and in the first 2 days after it, and it is small, is not increased, it is not a pathology and is perceived as a physiological process. In such cases, you often:
- apply to the cheek for a few minutes a plastic bottle with ice, wrapped it in a towel;
- to make the bath with saline solution, antiseptics, herbal teas (preferably sage).
Otherwise we are talking about the beginning of wound infection and need to see a doctor. Rinsing will only be on day 3.
Causes of infection:
- failure to comply with asepsis;
- the infection by the patient;
- inadequate sterilization of instruments.
Of patients absolutely can not touch the wound with your hands, hard objects, to disturb her. An infection will testify to a strong ongoing pain, bleeding, fever. Need to wound to apply a cotton swab moistened with 3 % hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes and immediately going to the doctor.
Fever after tooth extraction
During the tooth removal always damaged the surrounding tissue that can swell and give the temperature — 37,2–37,9 ºC. This will be the norm in 2-3 days. At such moments, the doctor can proactively prescribe antibiotics to prevent more complex complications. Further temperature — this is most often a sign of a complication such as stomatitis. Treatment antibacterial, rinse, rinsing the mouth and seeing the doctor.
The bleeding after removal
During tooth extraction necessarily damaged vessels and as a result, the wound starts to bleed. This is a consequence of any operation. But the clotting time is less than 10 minutes, during this time, the blood must stop. If bleeding starts after 2 days in the place of the removed tooth is in the late secondary bleeding. When it comes purulent softening of blood clots in the wound, there are General and local causes. Local:
- traumatic removal of the tooth otloma of the bone fragment;
- damage dental artery;
- mikerevi partitions.
Common causes: impaired blood clotting, there are other diseases of the blood vessels, hypertension. Help: the app pressing the swab dipped in hemostatic and urgent appeal to the doctor.
Alveolitis — inflammation of the tooth after its removal often removing the tooth, the dentist is forced to make an incision in the gum, and the hole it is damaged. It always causes its inflammation. Alveolitis of the number of complications leading to 40 % of cases. Often it occurs during operations on the lower jaw, and removing eights — each 5 patient. The wound is the alveolitis is usually delayed for 2 weeks. The presence of inflammation after 2-3 days, says the increase in regional lymph nodes, rise in temperature, swelling of the cheek, pain in the wound and around it, out of his mouth comes a putrid smell.
In addition, a blood clot in the wound there, in its place a gray plaque, the gums are inflamed and red, there is a malaise. The pain radiates to the ear, there is cephalalgia, speaking and chewing becomes difficult. Alveolitis can develop in a dry hole, wrong deletion, infections, ingestion of a fragment of a tooth in the wound, colds at the time of deletion, and decreased immunity. Inflammation can spread to the periodontium.
Dry hole after tooth extraction in the hole for a few minutes blood clot that protects the wound from the penetration of germs and injury. It is impossible to remove, it rinse in the first day are not allowed. In 1-1,5 weeks the clot disappears by itself after the wound will heal and grow new skin cells. If zealous patients in 1 day violate the requirement of the doctor, the hole is empty after washing out the clot, and the path of infection is opened. It is called a dry hole. This will be exacerbated by Smoking in 1 day, neglecting the diet. Treatment antibacterial and antiseptic local. When you call the doctor scrapes and cleans the hole under novocaine, and then processes the antiseptic, assigns baths, analgesics and antibiotics. If there is no treatment, you may develop osteomyelitis.
Perforation bottom maxillary sinus
Problems after removal can be expressed by a perforation of the bottom of the maxillary caves. Provoking moments: the close proximity of the teeth and the bottom of the sinus — this is an individual peculiarity, when the thickness of the bottom is less than 1 cm is Sometimes the root can go into the maxillary sinus, dental diseases in the form of cysts, and periodontitis. The main symptom of perforation, the appearance in the blood of air bubbles, twang voices and blood in my nose. When probing holes, the doctor can inspect her bottom, or do an x-ray. If the perforation is not diagnosed immediately, then after 4-5 days the symptoms subside, but there are signs of chronic sinusitis, because in place of the perforation occurs fistula.
Then there is pain in the sinuses, eyes and temples, constant nasal congestion and purulent discharge go. From the damage the swollen cheek. Treatment is usually surgical closure of the defect (damaged bone is connect a plastic plate). And sinus is opened, cleaned out, treated with antiseptic and antibiotics, the fistula is excised, an antibiotic is prescribed. In the hole is inserted iodine tampon for a week prior to the full formation of new granulation tissue in the defect area.
Damage to the gums
Complications during removal can also occur, as damage to the gums: because of the rush the doctor, poor lighting, breaches of the anesthesia. Dislocation of the mandible occurs when too wide a mouth opening, using a hammer and chisel. Local complications may include fracture of the mandible is only the fault of the doctor.
Paresthesia (neuropathy of the lower alveolar nerve) occurs after the expiration of the anesthetic. Numb lip, tongue, sometimes part of the face. Most of these consequences after tooth removal go away on their own without treatment.
In complex cases, treatment is carried out in a hospital: applied physiotherapy and vitamin therapy, injection of Dibazol, Galantamine, Aloe.
Incomplete removal of tooth is also iatrogenic complication due to negligence of a doctor, his inexperience. The extracted tooth doctor needs to always inspect and check the integrity of the roots, whether there is chipping.
The question is that an unscrupulous doctor may remain silent about the problem and then the patient then does not stop the pain, will develop a complication. When a problem is detected, the good doctor will conduct a second, but a little operation: a small incision of the gums, closer to the splinter and remove it through this incision. It must be done, otherwise you will develop osteomyelitis.
The consequences of the removal of the tooth can be shared. These include changing the position of nearby teeth: the empty space looming, the adjacent teeth, then broken bite may develop crooked teeth, increasing chewing load. To avoid this, it is best to have implantation, use dental dentures or install the bridge, and the sooner, the better.
Injury after tooth extraction
For rough work, the dentist may break the tooth, root, crown, can break off a piece of the alveoli, with the fragility of the bones, unnecessary movements of the patient, lack of experience of the doctor. Adjacent teeth can also break due to its lack of stability as a support.
Loss of consciousness during surgery
1 common complication after tooth extraction, loss of consciousness or fainting, which may occur before or after tooth extraction as a result of strong emotional stress of the patient. Such temporary disorders of consciousness, no one is immune, just the reasons are different: someone overly emotional, someone’s fear of pain and a rude dentist who is afraid of the sight of blood. For life is certainly not dangerous, but sitting in the waiting room patients scare definitely. You need to lay the patient horizontally, to provide him access to fresh air; loosen the collar, give to smell ammonia.
Complications after tooth extraction are more likely to develop if the patient later went to the doctor, so no need to delay the visit. Can’t wait for the increase in pain when an inflammation may come before the gums and damage it. She loosened and swells: the removal of the tooth is already out so the gums can not cause bleeding. If formed on the root of the cyst with pus, it also leads to inflammation: then the complication from removed bag of pus can be expressed in the development of alveolitis and osteomyelitis. If the women menstruation, it is possible to postpone the tooth extraction to its end (reduced blood clotting). A doctor is better to go in the first half of the day to possible complications after tooth extraction to solve on the spot. Unless General anesthesia before extraction to eat better, because satiety leads to more rapid blood clotting. If a person has CVD and it has anticoagulants, then a day before surgery and for 48 hours after their reception it is necessary to stop.
The postoperative period
The removal of the gauze tampon is possible after half an hour. When poor blood clotting swab can be kept for 40-60 minutes. To avoid complications after removal, is strictly prohibited in the first 2 days rinse the mouth. Only applicable trays: recruited in the mouth of saline or other antiseptic solution, and then, inclining his head toward the wound, to hold the solution for 5-6 minutes without proschalnyj movements, and gently let him out. The procedure is repeated up to 3 times a day. Especially the use of trays is shown in the presence of purulent processes of the mouth. An inflammation of the pulp of the tooth, gingivitis, cyst.
When there is tooth extraction, complications often occur at the wrong relevant to blood clot: it was already mentioned that touch and you cannot remove it. Even if on the surface of the clot got food, impossible to try to pick it with a toothpick, you can hurt and damage the clot, this is especially important on the first day. Generally 1 day after tooth extraction should be maintained strictly the following rules: you cannot blow your nose, spit, brush your teeth. No Smoking, because when inhaling smoke arises negative pressure in the mouth, and the clot can extend from the wells. The maximum that is possible — to hold salt solution near the wells and gently let him out.
The first 2-3 hours after removal do not eat, drink water impossible. It is forbidden to drink alcohol, eat spicy, hard, hot food: increases blood flow to the hole, and the pain and swelling increase.
On day 2 the bath should be done after every meal. Brushing your teeth with a soft brush is allowed only from 2 days, take care not to touch the hole. The following 3 day food should be just soft, you can not eat sweets, drink alcohol, not to consume drinks and food hot. Chew only on the healthy side. You are allowed to rinse your mouth only on day 3, soda-salt solution, Furatsilina, Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, chamomile. For pain relief in the first 2 days you can take NSAIDs: Indomethacin, Ketanov and Naproxen etc. Also slightly reduce the pain can swiping a bottle of cold water wrapped in a towel. The ice from the freezer is not! Pain every day will decrease it in the absence of complications should not increase with eating. Excluded sunbathing on the beach, hot treatments in the form of baths, tubs, saunas, physical overload. Subject to such rules complications avoidable.