Computed tomography of the jaw
Computed tomography of the jaw is the newest method of diagnostics of teeth is the most reliable, informative, allowing to understand the most complex cases. Therefore, KT has quickly become very popular. Doctors various dental specializations trust her. Perform a CT scan of the jaws on the devices of 2 types:
The last (CBCT) refers to the most advanced technologies, it came into dentistry in the XXI century and has the advantage, reflected in the high speed of the procedure with minimal radiation load on the patient. Safe for a human to do 2-3 treatments a day. Computed tomography of the jaws simplistically called CT scans of teeth, but this term is not quite correct, because with this instrument you can not only inspect the teeth, upper and lower jaws and the facial skeleton.
In some cases, appoint CT in dentistry
Using tomography can detect the slightest changes in the mouth. When injury it is prescribed to confirm or to eliminate the offset and damage to the jaw. By computer tomography it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment for such pathologies:
- tumors in bone and soft tissues;
- liquid cystic formations;
- complex diseases of the gums (designate the study of periodontal pockets);
- inflammatory processes.
As a preventive method of diagnosis CT scan of the dentition is not mandatory, but desirable, especially in the case when a patient complains of pain in the tooth, and an oral examination does not reveal its cause. Method to diagnose caries under fillings and dental.
During CT of the upper jaw examination includes the paranasal sinuses, the largest of which is the maxillary. Its bottom reaches the roots of the teeth, and the upper part is connected with the middle nasal course. The study of the obtained images allows to determine the exact cause of recurrent sinusitis. With the help of computer tomography retrieve the narrowing of the outlet passages of the sinus, presence of foreign bodies, polyps, benign and malignant tumors. The cause of odontogenic sinusitis can be filling material if not properly treated, the presence of svarkomplekt teeth, which is also seen in the pictures.
KT need to do if you suspect osteomielit. If the affected mandible, the patient loses sensitivity front of the oral mucosa and lower lip.
Health problems patient cause improperly growing wisdom teeth which are often unable to properly erupt. Often they are blocked by other teeth, so grow into the gums if the bone. In such cases, they should be removed, it is necessary to obtain a real picture of what is happening with these teeth. It gives the computer.
CT scan before implantation
Before surgery, your doctor should have information about the state of the oral cavity, jaw bones and teeth. CT method saves time, because the received with its aid, can answer many questions. Having it easier to predict the results of implantation. A three-dimensional image of the jaw allows to evaluate the anatomical features of the entire maxillofacial area of a patient: the structure of teeth, roots and root canals, to choose the right shape and size of dental implant. On this depends the success of the operation, the degree of engraftment of the implant and the length of service of a new tooth. Before surgery, the MRI is needed to assess the status and quality of the jaw bone: height, volume, and density. It shows the presence of resorption (resorption of bone). If necessary, the doctor may prescribe a sinus lift, is developing a comprehensive treatment plan. CT allows the doctor to examine the jaw of the patient from all sides, helps to properly arrange the implants to define the angle for the most secure fit.
Without opportunity, which opens the 3D image, the surgeon has to work harder. All study data should be protected and the procedure of imaging, it is desirable to have.
Adults technology for children
Computed tomography of the maxilla and mandible can be performed in a child 5 years of age by the doctor. Modern devices have special programs for children, with reduced radiation exposure. The operator adjusts the height of the scanning device for the growth of the child, seats him so that was convenient. Mom can be with him. Immobility of the head of the child provide the plastic retaining clips. Diagnosis lasts no longer than a minute. Directly in front of her no training required.
Malocclusion has 70-80% of the population. It spoils the appearance and health. It is better to identify and cure it as children, as in adults, the skeleton is completely formed and the jaws to improve need more time.
At age 6 children get their permanent teeth. That they survived for decades, if problems occur, it is important to treat them using the same high technology as in adult dentistry. The 3D reveals malocclusions in children and allows you to choose the right design for the alignment of the teeth. It shows whether the child ENT diseases. They need to be eliminated before the start of orthodontic treatment. The MRI is going to reveal the beginnings of impacted teeth and their direction. It is important to make children and adolescents prior to the installation of braces. Specialist must ensure that the teeth will withstand the load. All types of braces are manufactured individually for each patient. Design to fit perfectly dental technicians for the simulation of the jaw and patients using 3D images.
How to make a computer tomography of the jaws
The procedure is performed by an experienced dentist or a radiologist. During it the patient is standing or, if required, sits. It needs to remove metal jewelry and orthodontic constructions, because they interfere with the operation of the apparatus. Specialist helps him to wear a vest with a lead layer that protects the neck and chest. In the oral cavity is inserted a small occlusal Nakonechny plate. To the head during the procedure did not move, the chin is fixed on a special stand. Hands of a man clinging to the handrails of the scanner. The doctor chooses the program in the control panel and the scanner makes 1 revolution around the patient’s head for 14-20 seconds, removing the jaw in different projection slices. To move at this time is impossible. The actual exposure time to 6 seconds. The patient doesn’t feel anything.
The beam passes through a very small portion of the diagnosed region, and a large number of pictures is fed to a computer that is connected to the monitor. This allows you to create three-dimensional images of very high resolution in the frontal, axial and sagittal planes. The program plays it back after 1-2 minutes after the procedure. The doctor can view details on three axes, layers, zoom, flip. Professional, decoding the resulting image, describes the organic nature and structure of internal tissues.
The absolute indications and contraindications to CT is determined by the physician. Despite the fact that the radiation produced by the MRI scanner, a light, a pregnant woman is better to abandon this method of inspection of the teeth, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. Lactation feeding is prohibited during the day after the test. The restrictions apply to patients weighing over 150 kg. of the procedure CT should refrain inadequate patients who are unable to sit still.
In cases where CT scan is contraindicated, prescribe other methods of research, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Images taken by this method, high precision, and a magnetic field harmless to the human body.
MRI in dentistry is often used to study the state of the cartilage of the lower jaw, namely, if during its movement appear extraneous sounds, pain, discomfort, or spasm. The study covers the soft tissue of the oral cavity, diseases of the tooth pulp, the gums, identifies cystic masses. However, MRI is not indicated for the study of the temporomandibular region and of the whole jaw in General, when patients with metallic or electrical implants, hearing AIDS for the middle ear. For the crowns made entirely of metal (alloys of copper with gold or steel plated), MRI has no visible impact, but the image looks distorted, the result will be problematic to determine. If you have a porcelain fused to metal crowns, MRI can be done. Details crowns — pins, screws, plates made from Nickel, cobalt and iron affect the magnetic field of the apparatus. Some ferromagnetic materials under his influence begin to move or to warm up. In medical centers with innovative apparatus, just change the settings.