Cracks on the tongue: causes and treatment

If the tongue cracks, to ignore this fact you should not. Among the diagnostic criteria, is able to indicate the development of pathological processes in the human body, is the change in the appearance of this muscular organ. That’s why doctors of any specialization in conducting the examination of the patient, among other things, pay attention to the condition of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity. If the specialist discovers that the patient has language crack, it designates additional testing helps to determine for this condition the exact cause and treatment, if necessary.

Predisposing factors

Each person faced with a similar problem before all interested in the question – why does the tongue crack? Considering the adverse factors that can cause changes in the appearance of this organ, they can be divided into 2 groups:

  1. Local – furrow on the language talking about the presence of dental pathology.
  2. Somatic – cracks in the tongue are formed as a result of dysfunction of the endocrine or digestive system, and can also indicate the presence in the body of chronic inflammation.

To the attending physician could decide in questions of medical tactics, he must find out the exact reasons why the language in the cracks.

Local causes

Determining dental causes cracks on the tongue, the experts are the patient’s differential diagnosis, which identifies:

  • inflammation of the soft tissues of the tongue – glossitis;
  • appeared on the tongue of the defect displays an allergic response of the organism to hygienic means for oral cavity or on the materials of the orthopedic prosthesis;
  • the impact of traumatic factor – cracks may appear on the surface of the tongue in contact with sharp edges of decayed teeth, as a result of prokusyvanie, the operation of prostheses manufactured in violation of technical specifications.

If the reasons for the cracks in the language – sensitization of the patient or mechanical trauma, while eliminating the adverse effects of a cracked tongue is quickly restored independently, without additional therapeutic measures.

Types of glossitis

With the development of this type of pathology the patient complains of the appearance of pigmented areas and grooves on the surface of this muscular organ, and pain of varying intensity and burning sensation, in most clinical cases localized on the tip of my tongue. To determine the tactics of how to treat cracks on the tongue in this case, the dentist prescribes conduct additional diagnostic procedures and specialist consultations related disciplines. In dental practice distinguish 3 types of inflammatory processes in the muscular body.

Desquamative type of the disease

The detection of this form of glossitis during diagnostic examination of the patients revealed a metabolic process. Causes, which can lead to altered metabolism, various:

  1. the radical restructuring of the body of pregnant women;
  2. chronic diseases of the digestive tract;
  3. helminthiasis;
  4. some types of blood diseases.
READ  Teeth whitening by lemon - 9 the best ways

The disease is characterized by specific clinical pattern of development, therefore, difficulties in diagnosis, the doctors did not occur. Pathological symptoms are the following:

  • education of migratory species at the surface of the tongue discolored areas with brightly colored edges. From the cracked body resembles a map, there is a spontaneous change of the localization of the pathological foci;
  • burning sensation;
  • a mild pain.

Cracks in the initial stages are microscopic in size, the depth of which increases with the worsening of the pathological process.

Diamond type of the disease

In this case, the reason why the patient has language cracking is in chronic diseases of the stomach, accompanied by low acidity. While the correlation in the periodic change of exacerbation and remission, the main somatic diseases and visual pathological changes on the surface of a muscular organ. The characteristics of this type of glossitis the following:

  • in periods of exacerbations cracks in the language centre;
  • the resulting furrow is surrounded by a limited diamond-shaped smudge, with a bluish coloration.

As a rule, people with this disorder rarely seek specialized help. This is due to the fact that cracking the language is absolutely not sick, and cosmetic defect after some time disappears on its own.

Folded type of the disease

Most often, when a dentist treats patients with complaints that they have cracked the language, after a preliminary examination, the doctor makes the diagnosis of folded glossitis. In this case, this muscular organ can crack because of the following reasons:

  • development gipovitaminozov state, first of all, the lack of patient of vitamins A and b group, nicotinic acid;
  • helminthiasis – parasitic in the intestinal lumen of the worms prevent the absorption into the bloodstream of trace elements and nutrients in the quantities needed for the normal course of metabolic processes;
  • intoxication with salts of heavy metals;
  • chronic diseases of the digestive system of different etiology;
  • the impact of traumatic factors;
  • a chemical burn.

Depending on the nature and localization of the pathological focus, which became the root cause deformation of the surface of the tongue, patients are defined by the following symptoms:

  1. deep cracks, which is characterized by only the longitudinal or only the transverse location;
  2. language becomes loose, torn, covered with patina, the color of which depends on the type of the disease;
  3. with the growth of the intensity of the pathological process the language starts to hurt all the more;
  4. in the most severe clinical cases on the surface of the tongue may be areas of ulceration, which often become infected and are filled with purulent contents.
READ  The child in the year of no teeth

To cure this pathological process, the patient needs comprehensive treatment that helps to not only get rid of cracks on the language, but also to eliminate the root cause of their appearance.

A congenital form of glossitis

In some cases, the deformation of the surface of the tongue is hereditary and does not require specific treatment, because it acts only as a cosmetic defect.
A distinguishing feature of this form of disease, if present, affected the language centre, which notes the presence of grooves located both longitudinally and transversely. Usually, patients decide to get rid of such deformities only to improve the aesthetic appearance of the mouth.

Differential diagnosis of

When the patient has formed cracks on the tongue causes and treatment of such defect are closely related. Before the patient detailed examination, your dentist may suggest the presence of a certain kind of pathological disorder, considering that, where the surface of the tongue is localized recesses

  1. Lose the entire tongue surface without the formation of plaque – folded or desquamative glossitis.
  2. The presence of grooves around the body parallel with the formation of a white or yellow plaque – peptic ulcer of the upper digestive tract.
  3. The identification of grooves on the entire surface of the tongue with simultaneous formation of plaque that has brown coloration of liver disease.
  4. Lose the tip of a muscular organ – mechanical or thermal damage, the development of stomatitis.
  5. Localization of cavities in the Central part of the language or folded rhomboid glossitis.
  6. The deformation of the side surfaces of the body at the background of pronounced edema – pathology of the circulatory or digestive system.


In each clinical case of recesses in the language of what to do to eliminate them, the doctor decides only after receiving all the necessary data of laboratory and instrumental examination.

Therapeutic measures

The treatment of fractures of the language provides a comprehensive approach aimed not only at eliminating the underlying disease that triggered the deformation of the surface of this muscular organ, but to the relief of pain and, if necessary, elimination of secondary infection of the oral cavity. In the presence of chronic foci of pathology in the patient’s body, which was the reason that cracks have formed in the language of treatment is a joint effort of physicians of relevant specializations. Dental care is as follows:

  1. The elimination of the inflammatory processes in the oral cavity – the treatment of pathologies of the gums, stomatitis, filling of cavities and so on.
  2. Selection of hypoallergenic and hygienic care of the oral cavity.
  3. The exclusion of adverse effects of chemical and thermal stimuli capable of enhancing the intensity of pathological symptoms (removal from the diet of sour, spicy, spicy meals, consuming excessively hot or cold foods and liquids).
  4. The use of baths of decoctions of medicinal plants with antiseptic and analgesic effect (oak bark, chamomile, sage, yarrow, St. John’s wort, and others). During the procedure, you should carefully monitor the temperature of the drug solution so that it does not burn the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
  5. Local application of analgesic gels made specifically for use in the dental practice. The selection and appointment of such medicinal products should be performed only by the attending physician taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient, since their use may cause side effects, particularly allergic reactions.
  6. Local application, oily solutions, for example, vitamin A or sea buckthorn oils which have a regenerating effect.
READ  Dental treatment during pregnancy: how far along can

Any changes to the appearance of a language should apply for advice to the dentist, even if such violations are not accompanied by any discomfort for the patient. The absence of pain in the region of this muscle on the formation of the surface recesses does not guarantee absolute safety to human health because such deformations in the majority of clinical cases are the first signs of disruption of the normal functioning of the body.

Timely access to a doctor and conducting in-depth surveys can often avoid development of severe complications.

Among the preventive measures aimed at preserving the aesthetic appearance of a muscular organ, is careful observance of oral hygiene and regular preventive medical examinations.