Cyst of the jaws: classification, symptoms, treatment

Among all available lesions of the maxillary bone cyst of the jaw is the most common type of the disease. The very pathology is a benign neoplasm that presents in the form of a cavity. Its walls consist of fibrous tissue, and inside it is lined with epithelial cells. At the moment there are many varieties of cystic tumors of the jaw. That is why there is a classification of this disease, which can highlight the different symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment.

Features of the disease

As mentioned above, the jaw cyst is a cavity formation, filled in with liquid. It can long time not to disturb the man, and as a consequence causes many complications. According to the statistics, the cyst of the upper jaw occurs 3 times more often than bottom.

The upper jaw

Cystic formation of the upper jaw can be the result of odontogenic or neoantigenic etiology. The main reason is the spread of the infection into the interior of the tooth through the root canals. The disease is easy to recognize in the case of suppuration. In this situation, the patient will experience these symptoms:

  • sleepiness;
  • the feeling of pain in the time of nadkusyvat;
  • the increase in body temperature;
  • swelling;
  • headaches.

As a diagnostic is an x-ray, where the picture will be visible dark areas.

The lower jaw

A cyst of the lower jaw is characterized by a hollow tumor, which may be filled with fluid. As a result of active growth of the cyst due to compression or damage of the mandibular nerve, the patient may experience severe pain. Also on the affected side may be swelling and redness. The main complications of the cysts formed in the lower jaw, is abscess, osteomyelitis, or formation of a fistula.

Classification of cyst-like tumors


The pathology may be accompanied by inflammation with destruction of the internal epithelium and the formation of the within substitution of material. From cysts of the jaws there is a classification, which will be presented below.

Retromolar

Differently it is called keratocysts. Formed mainly in the lower jaw, especially in the place of the Desna, where the cut «wisdom tooth». Tumor the tumor has a fibrous thin wall and the inner side of the cyst lined with epithelial cells.

The disease is diagnosed only through x-ray examination, and removed the tumor surgically. It is noteworthy that even after the removal of possible frequent relapses of the disease.

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Radicular

This variant of cystic neoplasms is the most common among all of the diagnosed. The disease usually appears as a result of bad dental treatment or chronic periodontitis. It is localized in the upper jaw, and its formation may reach up to 2 cm in diameter.

It consists of a multilayered epithelial tissue, are not prone to keratinization. The wall of cystic masses studded with plasmatic cells and lymphocytes, is fibrous. At relapse of the pathology of the cells start to increase, resulting in an inflammatory process characterized by the symptoms. Also at this moment inside the walls of the cyst are formed by threadlike processes.

Aneurysmal

Quite rare in dental practice, therefore, its pathogenesis and causes are not yet fully understood. Often find aneurysmal cyst in the field of healthy or intact tooth (med. therm.), located on the lower jaw. Inside the cystic formation is present hemorrhagic fluid or blood.

In the early stages of the disease she has no clinical manifestations, pathology, therefore, increasingly worse, and as a result of the neglect of the process, the patient can notice the deformation of the lower jaw.

Follicular

A follicular cyst is formed from the rudiments of impacted teeth, so it is also called a cyst reportaugust of the tooth. Place of localization are usually canines or premolar area on the upper or lower jaw. The inner contents of cystic tumors can have unformed rudiments of teeth or a complete teeth. Cyst wall thin, composed of a layered tissue with altered cells, sometimes producing mucus. This kind of pathology is considered to be extremely unfavorable.

Nasoalveolar

A cyst formed from epithelial tissue and is localized at the junction of the maxillary bones and upper jaw. Abdominal fluid is yellowish, without the maintenance in it of cholesterol.

Residual

Is a result of improperly performed hysterectomy (removal of the tooth root). Speaking of clinical or histological characteristics, it is fully consistent with the root cyst. On the x-ray image will be transparency in the field of remote tooth.

Traumatic

A cyst resulting injury, is quite rare. The pathogenesis is unknown, but the cyst itself is not epithelial. Also, the inner contents can be hollow or with the presence of hemorrhagic fluid. You can detect it at a random x-ray examination, because the initial stage of the pathological process are asymptomatic.

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What are the causes of the disease

No wonder they say that the mouth of man is the most «evil» area in the body. It contains about five hundred different pathogenic microorganisms, which under the influence of adverse factors begin to actively proliferate. Most often this occurs as a result of lack or insufficient oral hygiene or the presence of a weakened immune system.

Also in the etiology of cystic growths can be attributed to the following reasons:

  • teething;
  • injury;
  • the course of infectious processes;
  • genetic predisposition, etc.

The immune suppression often associated with frequent stress, fatigue, sleep disturbance, hypothermia or unbalanced diet. Therefore, the best prevention is to eliminate these factors from your life.

What are the signs that you may notice the disease

The disease is easy to recognize in the manifested clinical symptoms. However, some types of cystic neoplasms may not Express symptoms, thereby complicating the disease. With the growth of cysts and achievements of her large size, the thinning of the front wall on the patient’s face can be painful protrusion. Such pathology can long time not to disturb the patient, but the severity of the disease will be every day worse. If a benign tumor is accompanied by inflammatory process, the disease can notice on the following grounds:

  1. become painful;
  2. the increase in body temperature to subfebrile or febrile indicators;
  3. the purulent contents;
  4. the appearance of deformation of the jaw bones;
  5. redness and swelling of the gums;
  6. symptoms of sinusitis (nasal congestion, unpleasant smell, rhinitis);
  7. frequent headaches and dizziness;
  8. chills;
  9. swelling of upper or lower jaw.

When the cyst jaw these symptoms requires immediate measures visits to a medical institution and a doctor’s advice.

Diagnosis

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To diagnose the disease is possible only by results of the conducted x-ray or ultrasound. Also, in some cases it is possible to hold the puncture.

Treatment of pathology

Cyst treated mainly surgically. Thus the main task of the doctor is to save the tooth, which is in the field of cystic masses. Cyst removal and restoration of disturbed functions of the tooth is carried out using these methods:

Cystectomy. In this case, the surgeon completely removes the cyst and sutured the wound. Such surgical intervention appropriate, if the root of the tooth is immersed in the cavity of the cyst is not more than 1/3. In deep dive the possibility of saving the tooth is very reduced and, as a rule, it quickly falls.
The cystoma. This method is most common when the cyst removal is performed only on the front wall, the rear side communicates with the cavity of the mouth. The accretion takes place over one week where the cavity is gradually filled with tampons smaller. Full recovery is noted within six months, or year. And the first two month the patient needs daily he comes for treatment, where after removal of the tampon cavity is washed and treated with antiseptics.
Two-stage operation. Surgery combines holding cystectomy and customie. It is the most safe and less traumatic. Even despite the size of the tumor lesions of tumors, this method allows you to keep the contours of the jaw.
Cystectomy plastic. This method is used quite rarely, most often, it allows to treat keratocyst or festering part dontogenous cystic neoplasms. In this case, the surgeon removes the tumor without sewing wounds.
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Sometimes the root of the cyst can be cured without the surgery. However, in the presence of complications or the formation of purulent exudate requires an immediate autopsy of the pathological focus and drainage of the cavity.

Cysts of the jaws are abnormal growths. They arise as a result of multiple adverse factors, and the pathogenesis of the development may vary depending on the variety of cystic neoplasms. It is difficult to predict this process, but it can be time to cure. Therefore, when any alarming symptoms should immediately consult a dentist and undergo dental health. The doctor in case of suspicion for cystic education will appoint the new directions on the basis of which can be diagnosed correctly.