Dental enamel hypoplasia in children pictures treatment

More than 40 % of the children found the underdevelopment of dental coverage, which spoils the beauty of a smile. What is dental enamel hypoplasia in children as it looks in the photo, why is there and what is effective treatment for this problem?

The answer to these questions will help to take timely measures to remedy the defect.

What is dental enamel hypoplasia?

Hypoplasia of teeth is a condition in which the children are not fully formed tooth enamel. The disease can affect milk teeth or permanent, but replaceable teeth have thinner enamel layer, so it affects more often.

This thinning of the enamel makes possible the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the deeper layer of dentin that is the tooth tissue consisting largely of collagen. It is a network of tubules and tooth, these tubules are wider and shorter. That is why the destruction of the milk tooth hyperplasia in children are more deep, because the bacteria need to travel a much shorter path to the dentin.

Enamel hypoplasia is not always visible to the naked eye, but if you look closely, you may notice yellowish or brownish stains on the teeth. When deeper lesions are seen as small grooves or pits is different from a healthy tooth color. The child may complain of discomfort when consuming something hot or cold.

Although enamel hypoplasia and dental caries is not the same, but frequently these diseases develop in close proximity to each other. Due to the thinning of the top coat of the tooth decay reaches deep inside and takes a more severe form. If in addition to dentine caries and affects other tissues of the tooth (pulp, cement), there is a risk that the child will form an overbite.

Causes

The pathological development of teeth occurs in the embryonic period, when they are laying and mineralization. That is, the reason must be sought in the history of pregnancy. As regards the permanent teeth, their formation begins in children under the age of 18 months, long before they replace dairy. In this case, the resulting explanation for the disease lies in the child suffered from infections, disorders of the brain and the gastrointestinal tract in the first 6-18 months after birth.

Why is the enamel some children develops abnormal? The etiology depends upon influence of adverse factors during the period from conception up to 1.5 years of age in each time period for different reasons.

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► Embryonic period. During fetal development the formation of tooth enamel can be influenced by such factors:

  • viral and bacterial infections, including rubella, toxoplasmosis, flu;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • exacerbation of mother’s chronic diseases;
  • toxemia and preeclampsia;
  • the influence of chemical and synthetic substances, including alcohol and drugs, and some medications;
  • scanty or irregular feeding women in period of gestation, leading to vitamin deficiency and lack of minerals.

► The period of birth. Factors that can provoke hypoplasia in this period are as follows:

  • premature baby;
  • the injuries sustained by the child during childbirth;
  • gynecological problems in the mother.

► Postpartum period. Born, the child can be faced with these adverse effects:

  • hemolytic disease of the newborn;
  • problems with lactation in mothers, leading to the decrease of milk or compromising its quality;
  • congenital malformations of the heart and blood vessels.

► In children after one and a half years, the list of reasons provocateurs thinning of the enamel had been expanded to include such factors as:

  • incorrect food regime;
  • disease of organs and systems of different nature;
  • hereditary factor;
  • anemia lack of iron in the blood;
  • any violation of the integrity of the teeth or their germs due to diseases (periodontitis, pulpitis), infectious lesions or traumatic injuries;
  • severe allergic conditions;
  • the effects of some medications, e.g., antibiotics;
  • fluorosis excessive intake of fluoride ingested from the water or from the air.

The pathogenesis of the disease is such that it constantly progresses. If the first signs of hypoplasia is not visible, then without treatment it affects more teeth, damaging underlying layers. This causes severe pain and the crumbling of the teeth.

Photo

Classification

Its the severity of the enamel hypoplasia is divided into two forms: local and systemic. Local affects mainly indigenous isolated teeth. When the system is observed symmetric involvement of a group of teeth, depending on the period in which it began to develop pathology. In the long process, it can involve all the teeth.

In turn, systemic enamel hypoplasia also has several forms:

  1. The spotted form is diagnosed, when teeth emerge whitish or yellowish spots without violating their integrity.
  2. Erosive manifested in more serious metabolic disorders and looks like the correct form bowl-shaped depressions in the enamel surface.
  3. Grooved — is also characterized by grooves, but in this case they are narrow and long, like a furrow.
  4. The mixed form is characterized by a combination of all the damage to the enamel at the same time.
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Under the influence of thinning enamel teeth begin to mutate and acquire one of the following forms:

  • Fournier teeth (upper Central incisors) like a butterfly or a screwdriver;
  • Hutchinson have a similar shape, but in addition accompanied by the formation of semicircular notches on the cutting edge of the tooth;
  • Pfluger (first molar) are characterized by underdevelopment bumps have a pointed appearance;
  • «tetracycline» teeth are yellow, their enamel is immature due to the usage of mom or baby tetracycline antibiotics, and if the child was assigned to antibiotic therapy after 6 months of life, will amaze hypoplasia and permanent teeth.

Sometimes the degree of illness so severe that the teeth no enamel is called the enamel aplasia.

Diagnosis

Hypoplastic loss of tooth enamel is easy recognized in the medical examination. If you still have doubts about the origin of visible lesions, the differential diagnostics is carried out, a method in which the list is gradually eliminated diseases with similar symptoms until there remains one, the most likely diagnosis.

For hypoplasia of tooth enamel are typical a combination of several signs:

  1. A history of child metabolic disorders suggests a cause-the catalyst that started the development of pathology.
  2. The nature of the lesions, their shape, depth and localization help to determine when the process of hypoplasia.
  3. The symmetry of the affected teeth tells about the systemic nature of the disease.
  4. In order to distinguish hypoplastic stains carious, can be performed the vital staining with methylene blue. When hypoplasia stains do not react to dye.

Thinning enamel is a condition that requires a very detailed inspection. Only such an approach will help to select effective treatment.

Enamel hypoplasia and its treatment

The decision on the most appropriate treatment takes dentist. It will depend on the extent of the disease, the age of the child, presence of concomitant diseases.

At the initial stage of the lesion the patient can be assigned remineralization — saturation of enamel minerals by using overlaying on the dried teeth appliques with calcium and fluoride. Thanks to this method, the enamel is restored and strengthened. The procedure is carried out for 5-20 days depending on the condition of the teeth.

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If the stains on the enamel of the teeth of the child very striking, the dentist can hold their ground and further whitening of the teeth. In more noticeable damage being filling with composite materials or veneers or Lumineers to fully hide the problem. What if the lesions on the teeth is so extensive that they can not hide veneers? Then it is necessary to place a crown.

Video: how to treat enamel hypoplasia?

Prevention

Well, if about the possibility of the development of the child’s hypoplastic lesions of the teeth of the expectant mother is aware in advance. Then there is the chance to avoid complications associated with the disease. During the planning of pregnancy, a woman must learn to live a new life. This means:

  1. The transition to proper nutrition. It should be well thought out, rich in trace elements, balanced.
  2. Development of responsible attitude to medication and other substances of chemical origin.
  3. Timely propecianeo acute and chronic diseases.

To avoid hypoplasia of the permanent set of teeth, you need to:

  • to monitor the usefulness of children’s diet, with guards carefully planned menu, a nursing mother ;
  • time to healing of any diseases;
  • be alert to the child accidentally injured;
  • become a regular patient of the dentist for the timely diagnosis and possible elimination of pathological processes in the oral cavity.

Only prevention is the only way to avoid hypoplasia of the teeth of the child. Unfortunately, to pay the ongoing process of hypoplasia impossible. The only treatment is to make the smile aesthetically beautiful.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

The classification of dental diseases ICD-10 in enamel hypoplasia has code К00. 4.