Dental implants: types, which is better as they serve
The loss of one or more teeth of the jaw arc is not only an aesthetic defect. Missing teeth can cause bone deformity of the jaw, changing bite, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract to create speech defects. The solution of this problem for many patients offers modern dentistry. The procedure for the reconstruction of teeth implant is an excellent alternative to removable dentures. Despite the high cost, implants today is an excellent investment in a healthy and beautiful smile for years to come.
Implantation as a method of treatment
So, what is dental implants? How do they differ from dentures? How many serve? What implants better place? Implantation is a method of restoration of lost dental units or a few teeth at a time. Implantology also solves the problem and complete absence of teeth using the latest dental techniques. Dental implants — artificial constructs, repeating essentially the root of a natural tooth. Placing the implant directly into the jawbone (process of osseointegration). Thanks to this special design of the artificial root fuses with the living tissue, followed by prosthetics. Implantation implantation into the bone of the tooth root from an alloy of metals, which increased coronal part of the tooth. Each implant consists of the following parts:
- The abutment (the head). Designed for fixation of the dental implants ensures a secure fit of the prosthesis, is the connecting element of the crown and root portion of the tooth.
- Neck. The component is used as a cushion connection with the lining of the gums.
- The body of the dental implant. The main element that ensures fixation of the head and neck when chewing. The body has various types and is made depending on the purpose of the implant.
- The healing abutment. One relates to the types of abutments. Looks like a screw connection with the head is cylindrical in shape. Necessary to give the gums the proper natural shape.
Each piece is securely fixed together by special fasteners, comprising a solid structure for successful osseointegration. Manufacturers produce different types of implants that are able to solve a range of orthodontic problems. For example, to eliminate the lack of teeth of the entire jaw of some good option is to install mini-implants, but if you want to restore front teeth, then you can go the classic dimensions of root prostheses. A special role in the choice of implants can play and the nature of the jawbone. In severe atrophy often requires a preliminary restoration of bone structure, but some manufacturers make special implants for implantation in place with a clear deficit of bone tissue.
Operation on implantation of teeth has a certain algorithm which is inherent to the installation of any structures. There are two main techniques for the osseointegration of the artificial root. Each has its own characteristics and technique of conducting.
This technique is a classic
To put the implant requires the following manipulations:
- Surgical. This stage involves subgingival osseointegration of implant fragment, after which you must wait about six months to an absolute fusion of the prosthesis and the bone structure.
- Prosthetics. After successful completion of osseointegration installing the healing abutment. The duration of creating the perfect contour around 14 days, after which the collet is fixed.
The disadvantage of this procedure is the need for bone augmentation at her obvious flaws. Thus, increasing the time of implant placement, it increases the cost. The process may be delayed in case of rejection by the body of the alien element.
The method of basal implantation
Is the latest in dentistry and offers the patient rapid elimination of defects of the jawbone. The method involves the installation of implants in the initial layer of the jaw bone structure. The basal layer has a high degree of density and is not subjected to gradual resorption (atrophy). The advantage of the method lies in the possibility to carry out the final stage of the prosthesis (fixation of crowns) after 5 days after installation of the artificial root.
Often patients choose the method of the basal implantology because they are safer and better to put on the chewing teeth. Modern manufacturers offer a wide range of implants and abutments to secure the artificial root in the bone structure of the jaw. The choice of method of implantation is completely dependent on clinical presentation, General condition of the patient’s teeth, a General history of existing chronic diseases of organs and systems.
Kinds and types of implants
So, what are dental implants? What are dental implants on purpose? What is it? All kinds of teeth implants are classified according to the purpose and design types. Each type performs a specific function and is suitable for installation in a separate pair segment of the jaw bone. For example, a variety of implants for teeth differs from the Assembly with minimal chewing load. After you install any dental implants service life will depend on proper care of the patient’s mouth.
Otherwise endosseous root implants are called endosteal lamellar. Designed for installation in thinning of the bone structure. Instead of the classic screw connection dental implant is the plate form which is a kind of Foundation for the abutment and the future crown. The main advantage of implants — no need to build up bone tissue and an affordable cost that makes this type of implants in the first place world ranking. Among the shortcomings emit less reliability in fixation and the complexity of the workflow, shorter lifetime of the dental implants.
An important advantage of implants is the similarity of artificial roots with natural. The connection of the implant may be a screw (threaded) or cylindrical (coating with a porous surface).
The installation of such implants is for special reasons, and how many years dental implants depends on the degree of bone destruction.
The implantation is carried out under the gum tissue with fastening the bone structure of the jaw. Thus, there is no implantation in the depth of the bones and head. Despite the thinness of the design, it is more massive. Installation subperiostal implants are two methods:
- the removal of the cast from bones with incision of the periosteum;
- the removal of the cast by means of computer tomography (without cutting).
The advantage of this type of system is the lack of need to build the missing bone tissue with obvious atrophy of the alveolar process. From the disadvantages include the low degree of fixation.
Endodontically stabilized implants
A dental implant is designed to strengthen a tooth with preservation of the natural root. Installation is screwed into the natural root of the tooth that has the mobility of the gingival hole. The operation will be successful if around the natural tooth root is at least 3 mm of the periodontium. The advantages include the possibility to save your own tooth, the elimination of a defect in one visit, no discomfort during the procedure.
A combination of dental implants vary widely in design due to the need for individual manufacture and occupy a leading place in the ranking. There are three main types of combined implants:
- Traditional (or plate). Tooth implant is a combination of plates and screws in the structure. Recommended for installation in the jaw when severe atrophy of the jaw bone.
- Disk. Disk fast enough implants take root into the bone structure. Suitable for installation in any segment of the jaw through its arc. The main advantage is the ability to set a crown after 5 days.
- Perosseous. Orthodontic implants are also called clinical. They are placed through an incision in the chin. Use of strong atrophy of the mandible. Successfully used as alternative to install dental implants is not possible.
The main advantage of combined implants is the smallest degree of rejection and speed of operation.
A real salvation for patients with removable dentures in their increased mobility. Implants have two parts. The first is attached to the removable denture and the gums. Mount for fixing like the little buttons for clothing. To fix implants teeth or bone of any density and structure, so they are the best implants for teeth in its kind.
Artificial root has small size and its base is a screw with a removable prosthesis. Implant placement has almost no special contraindications. With their help it is possible to eliminate the problem of lost units of one or several teeth at once, and, if you have dentures. Mini-implants don’t need to remove for cleaning, washing. The disadvantages include intolerance to high masticatory load.
What dental implants are the best and how long the implant will tell a doctor in a particular clinical situation. When you install a certain type of implants important to consider not only the condition of the oral cavity and the patient’s wishes, but also clinical evidence that absolute or relative contraindications.
Indications and contraindications
The main indications for the installation of certain teeth implants, types which are many, is the loss of a single tooth, several teeth simultaneously, additional fixation of removable dentures, and complete absence of teeth just jaw row of the patient. Depending on the complexity of the clinical situation, the physician selects the appropriate implant system. The main criterion in order to successfully implant the dental implants, is the presence of absolute and temporary contra-indications.
- diseases of the blood and organs of hematopoiesis;
- diseases of the Central nervous system;
- mental disorders;
- alcoholism and drug addiction;
- immunodeficiency States;
- developmental abnormalities of connective and bone tissue;
- venereal disease;
- infectious disease;
- diabetes mellitus (including the stage of medicamentous correction):
- bruxism (grinding of teeth);
- anomalies of the magnitude of the language;
- the elderly over 55 years;
- intolerance of conduction or General anesthesia;
- the period of chemotherapy;
- the period of exacerbation of any chronic disease.
Absolute contraindications to entirely exclude the installation of implant systems of other type. To eliminate various defects associated with the loss of the tooth, use other possible methods of correction.
Relative (transient) contraindications:
- lack of oral hygiene;
- caries and diseases of the oral cavity;
- gingivitis of various etiologies;
- periodontitis and other inflammatory lesions on the mucous tissues:
- pathological processes in the temporomandibular joint;
- excessive atrophy of the bone tissue;
- pregnancy and lactation.
After eliminating the transient conditions, the installation of implants can be carried out considering the overall clinical history of the patient. Thus, we cannot exclude an increased risk of rejection of the implanted material.
The basic implant system
The most advanced technology in the manufacture of implants used by manufacturers of Israel, USA, Sweden, and Switzerland. Every company has a story, exists in the dental market for decades.
Of the leading implant systems in the world ranking are the following:
- Implants Nobel Biocare made in the USA. Are one of the more expensive systems because of the high degree of survival rate, long service life. The line presents the best dental implants. Resorption of the bone tissue after the implant a long time.
- Implants «Astra Tech» production in Sweden. Known for original design and impeccable quality. «Astra Tech» — the kind of dental implants conical shape with Micronesia. Implant system allows you to evenly distribute the chewing load in the jaw, increases the resorption time of bone structure around the implant. Implants have a high cost.
- Implants «MIS» made in Israel. Are some of the most affordable orthodontic implants in the price category and are considered structures of class economy. The range of the implant is wide enough, can be used in various clinical situations.
- Implants «alpha bio» made in Israel. An implant system have a wide range of models, abutments and anchorages. You can use them in the most challenging dental situations.
- Implants «ROOTT» made in Switzerland. Is the only system after the installation which can be completed prosthesis after 5 days. Installation does not require a preliminary bone augmentation, minimises the risk of injury after the operation, but which is better decides a doctor. Suitable for patients with severe diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis, groups A, B, C, diabetes.
Known implants, in General, ranking systems are of Russian and Belarusian production. The cost for these implants is much lower than foreign models, but correct installation is almost the same. Terms of service teeth implants depend not only on the professionalism of the dentist, but also on the discipline of the patient after surgery, types of dental implants.
The basis for successful installation of dental implants from any manufacturer is the professionalism of the doctor and adequate assessment of the oral condition of the patient. Thorough preoperative diagnostics allows you to minimize all possible risks.
After surgery it is important to follow all doctor’s orders and to monitor their own health. The simultaneous efforts of doctors and discipline of the patients preserve the integrity of the artificial structures, as well as, provide exceptional beauty for many years.