Dentin: types, composition and structure of dentine
The base material, giving shade to the tooth, nourishes and protects from the harmful effects of the dentin. Describe the types, chemical composition and structure of dentine in order to better understand what is happening in various diseases and on treatment.
To go to the dentist no one likes, but only they know about teeth and can restore destroyed parts, remove disease, seal, prosthesis and monitor their health. Any recommendations in dentistry for oral hygiene based on the very real principles and characteristics of the structure of solid tissue.
What is it?
Dentin is obyzvestvleniya substance composed of mineral components, conducting micronutrients in their tubules to the enamel and protects the pulp against various aggressive influences. Dentin is the inner part of the tooth structure. It is harder than bone but softer than enamel that covers and also elastic enough to resist breaking.
The thickness of the masticatory and cervical region differs significantly depending on individual circumstances and ranges from 2-6 mm. Color of dentin, a yellowish or gray, that determines the natural tint of the dentition, which is in each person.
Coverage in different parts of tooth dentin is different. So, in the crown region is enamel, which we can see with the naked eye. In the root part this coating is replaced with cement, are less durable material. Connect the dentin enamel special irregularities that perfectly adjoin each other.
This part of the tooth consists of the following tissues:
- Predentin – surrounds the pulp of the tooth and feeds it to various substances. Its main component is the so called odontoplasty, pear cells. They are responsible for the sensitivity of the tooth and the metabolic processes inside it.
- Interglobular part that fills the space between the dentinal tubes. There is a separate classification – near-pulp, the dentin and mantle. The first is near the pulp of the tooth, and the second is adjacent to the enamel.
- Tubules pass through the entire structure of dentin and the more, the better protected the «heart» of the unit from bacteria and other impacts. With age, they elongate and narrow.
- Peritubular dentin lines the tubules of the wall, has a high degree of mineralization.
- Transparent or sklerozirovanie tissue develops and increases in volume with age.
This structure is important in the diagnosis and treatment of the patient’s tooth. Every time the doctor said the affected areas and determines which of them you want to remove.
The composition of dentin
Chemical composition distinguishes it from other tissues. Most, and that 70% consists of mineral inorganic substances:
- calcium phosphate, which is the basis;
- phosphate of magnesium;
- calcium fluoride;
- calcium carbonate and sodium.
The remaining 20% of the composition are organic substances is collagen, amino acids, lipids and polysaccharides. And 10% is water. Due to such structure of dentin is very hard and elastic fabric. Due to this it helps the enamel to crack and to withstand heavy chewing load.
Collagen fibers arranged in different ways and differ in their detailed structure. Some depart from the pulp of the tooth radially, and are called the fibres of Korff. Other, fiber Ebner, arranged tangentially. And if the first adjacent to the enamel and cement of the tooth, then the second envelop directly the pulp and thereby protecting her.
Types and functions
Describe the types of dentin:
- Primary – this is the first tooth tissue that exists from a baby until, until they begin to erupt teeth. Formed during the laying of the future units in the process of pregnancy. Form tubules quite wide, they are short and perfectly smooth.
- Secondary, or else, it is called substitution. This dentin is formed the moment a tooth appeared above the gums and continues to develop throughout a person’s life. The main source of its occurrence is considered pulp. With age, the tubules become more long and narrow, and their structure, form and location change. This depends on the full protection of the pulp, tubules as they themselves are an obstacle to the spread of bacteria.
- Tertiary – there is only the aggressive action during disease and inflammation. For example, dental caries, to protect the nerve begins to actively produce such fabric, which tries to counteract microorganisms. The chaotic structure of this dentine copes with its protective function.
If the bacteria had spread so much that affected the inner part, it appears nekrotizirovannye tissue, the physician must remove to fully cure.
List of diseases of dentin
With the defeat of tooth doctors establish a diagnosis like middle caries. When the cavity gets food, then the person complains of hyperesthesia, i.e. increased sensitivity and irritability of the tooth to cold and hot. In advanced cases, there is pain.
If you do not treat this disease, then the situation will worsen and the bacteria gets into the pulp. When inflammation of the doctor will have to remove dead tissue. After such a manipulation of the dentin will stop all metabolic processes.
The main threat for the internal structure of the tooth diseases are:
- referred to tooth decay;
- increased abrasion of enamel;
- wedge-shaped defect;
- and hypersensitivity as an independent pathology and related or nuisance to the above problems.
Video: human tooth slice through the crown, dentin, and pulp.
The recovery process
The most basic cells of the dentin, as we found, are odontoplasty. Therefore, the entire process of tissue regeneration based on their activities. The most important part of a healthy tooth is the pulp. If they had to remove it, the cell regeneration becomes impossible.
Among the world’s scientists in dentistry most advanced U.S. officials. They have made a number of discoveries, which in the future should help the natural regeneration of dentin, even in its destruction. In laboratory conditions, have managed to grow a healthy human tooth only due to activation of target genes.
The next part of such works is an attempt to restore the structure of the tooth on a micromechanical level. Applying colloidal compounds of calcium phosphate, saline solution, collagen, and electric shocks, researchers were able to create a biocomposite material, fully corresponding to the structure of the bone.
During laser radiation of the destroyed teeth of the rats were able to stimulate healing in a natural way. It is this effect contributed to the artificial synthesis of odontoblasts, which consists of dentin.
While these conventional techniques in dentistry are not applicable, they shall be tested only in the laboratory to study and create the more modern methods of treatment of dental diseases.
For normal recovery of dentin are available only in vitamin-mineral complexes. It is interesting that nourish the tooth can not only inside but also outside. To structure important elements:
- vitamins a, b, C, E and D.
To the required amount of these minerals is absorbed into the tooth of the paste should adhere to the rules of hygiene of the oral cavity. To make a circular motion with a toothbrush, but the cleansing procedure itself should not last less than three minutes.
For internal saturation of the hard tissues of the important trace elements should be observed and good nutrition. Therefore, in the daily diet should include fresh fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, and dairy products. When there is insufficient amount of the desired substances in food you can also take vitamin complexes, food additives, etc.
Just making sure proper nutrition and following all the recommendations of dentists on the treatment of oral cavity you can be sure in maintaining the health of the teeth and their natural resistance to any external aggressive influences.