Diseases of teeth and gums: symptoms and treatment

Disease of the teeth or soft tissues can be detected in every human being. According to the world Health Organization by the age of 65 a third of the planet’s inhabitants lost all her teeth. In the first place on prevalence are carious lesions, which result from the activity of bacteria that destroy the enamel. Second place in the list is gum disease, which lead to the fact that falls perfectly healthy tooth. Often the doctor treats the patient, when he began irreversible changes, tissue atrophy, Baring teeth roots or pus. In this situation, to restore the fabric is impossible. From the article, you will learn what are gingival diseases in adults and how to treat them.

What could be gum disease

Gum disease in children and adults are divided into three types:

  1. Gingivitis. In this disease the mucous tissue inflamed locally, in the field of a particular organ. Gingivitis is divided into atrophic, catarrhal, ulcerative and necrotic, hypertrophic. The pathology is characterized by the fact that it does not affect the bone tissue and does not destroy teeth. Gingivitis treatment does not require a lot of time and material costs, as it is often enough to remove plaque. But if you ignore bleeding gums and bad breath, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis.
  2. Periodontitis. Inflammation not only affects the mucosal tissue around the tooth, but also its supporting ligaments. Gums eventually removed from the tooth, forming the so-called the periodontal pocket, which accumulate food leftovers and consequently, pathogens. Under the action of calcium salts, which is included in the composition of saliva, this plaque turns to stone, and it can be removed only in the dental office with the help of special medical instruments. Under the action of a hard or soft bacterial deposits gums start to bleed, you experience pain while eating, in the pockets formed pus that seeps out, if you put pressure on the mucosa. Because periodontal disease destroys the supporting ligaments of the tooth, they eventually begin to unravel and shift. The lack of treatment leads to loss of healthy teeth. If the disease is in the acute phase, you may receive General malaise, nausea, weakness, hyperthermia;
  3. Periodontal disease. This disease is not inflammatory in nature. Of disrupted trophic tissues, that is due to insufficient blood supply to the mucous tissue receives less nutrients, there is degeneration, laid bare the neck of the tooth, honey bodies increase the gap. Another sign of the disease is that the gums are not on the same level (one below the other). When this appearance of the mucosa is not changed, it does not change color, not podpadaet and does not bleed, but is gradually destroyed. The pathology usually affects all gums. This disease is diagnosed more often in older people because with age, the metabolism in the body is slower, the vessels are not as elastic.

Periodontal disease is a relatively rare disease, forming 8% of people with abnormalities of the gums, and it is often confused with periodontitis.

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In addition to these diseases in the state of the mucosa may influence diseases of hard tissues of the tooth and the mouth. The destruction of the crown the infection gets into the pulp, then in the periodontium, which leads to local inflammation. On the gums may form a fistula (holes in the tissue) due to periodontitis or errors in the treatment of caries. If the mouth develops stomatitis, the gums may appear sores, ulcers, aphthae.

Why are gum diseases

As a rule, the disease of the teeth and gums occurs due to incorrect care of the oral cavity. Caring for teeth devote little time or do not emit at all, the technique of cleaning a wrong that leads to injury of the mucosa. Bacteria begin to proliferate, and their waste products affect the mucosa of the oral cavity. Soft plaque some time later hardens and turns into Tartar, which injure adjacent tissue. The gums become inflamed and gingivitis develops. If the inflammatory process does not stop in time, it affects the bone tissue (periodontitis), the gums cease to hold the tooth. But not only a violation of hygiene can lead to pathology. Dental disease such as gingivitis is associated with the following factors:

  • malocclusion;
  • lack of vitamins;
  • gastrointestinal disease;
  • errors in the treatment of teeth;
  • a sharp change in the concentration of hormones;
  • stress.

These factors affect the quality of saliva, thus causing diseases of the teeth and gums. Periodontal disease appears as a result of hormonal changes, heredity, bad habits, changes in the blood vessels.

Pathological processes in the gums do not appear instantly. In order to develop periodontitis should be about 1.5 years. If the mucous membrane is not much affected by inflammation and it only provokes plaque, this period increases significantly. Periodontal disease can occur up to 15 years. Therefore, the main cause of gum disease is lack of proper care for the oral cavity and the rejection of preventive visits to the dentist.

How to recognize gum disease

One of the most visible signs of gum inflammation is bleeding from them by mechanical action. First, the blood only appears on the toothbrush during hygiene procedures, and then bleeding occurs while eating or during articulation. When inflammation of the gums become swollen, red or bluish in color, there is pain. All of these symptoms indicate gingivitis.

Over time, gingivitis develops into periodontitis, and these symptoms are added to the suppuration, the response to thermal and chemical stimuli, denudation of the neck of the tooth, teeth become visually longer to form gingival pockets. If the disease completely running, the teeth become mobile, they stagger and go «fan». There are three stages of periodontitis:

  1. teeth move back and forward;
  2. the tooth can move left and right;
  3. the tooth moves in all directions and up and down.
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The appearance of the inflammatory process inevitably causes, and bad breath. Much harder for yourself to notice the development of periodontal disease, since the disease until it reaches a severe stage, does not issue. The patient is not concerned about the bleeding or inflammation, no pain. Over time, the gums go down, an itch, the teeth are wedge-shaped, change color, appear on enamel erosion.

Signs of dental disease can be fever, headache and eye pain, swollen lymph nodes.

Methods of treatment of the gums

To diagnose and determine a treatment plan gums can only dentist. If you will attempt to resolve the pathology, you have it is unlikely to happen. Medicated toothpastes and other hygiene products are better prevention than treatment. Diseases of the teeth and mouth cannot be cured by traditional medicine. If you rinse your mouth decoctions of herbs, it relieves the symptoms for a while, but will not eliminate the cause of the pathology. Traditional medicine can be used as prevention of diseases of the teeth or as a Supplement to the basic therapy.

Gum diseases and their treatment does the doctor periodontist. To define the schema of treatment of periodontitis will require an x-ray. It will establish how advanced the disease is, to estimate the loss of bone tissue, to see subgingival pockets, will help to understand whether to try to save a tooth or it’s pointless.

The symptoms and treatment of gum disease can vary greatly, but is always the first step is professional teeth cleaning. Further action on the treatment of gum disease depends on the diagnosis and stage.

Methods of treatment:

Hygienic cleaning. The doctor removes dental plaque from the enamel surface and the gingival pockets. This can be done by using the curette, ultrasound, laser or sandblast cleaning. When you remove stones the doctor uses ultrasonic tip, which sends vibrating waves. When working it is necessary to cool the water, so as not to burn the gums. This is the most effective method, but it cannot be used if the patient is pregnant, has diabetes, heart failure or asthma. Sandblast cleaning is effective when you want to remove a soft plaque and a coloring pigment. Tooth enamel is cleaned under the action of a mixture of particulate substances and water, but this method is not used if there is bleeding gums.
Anti-inflammatory therapy. To relieve inflammation using special dental gels and ointments, which reduce swelling, kill pathogens and promote regeneration. Such drugs include «Holisal», «Metrogyl Denta», «Asepta», «Amistad». If the diagnosis is gingivitis, the removal of stones in dentistry and the ten-day course of gel applications in the home will be sufficient for the treatment of
Physiotherapy. The method used in the treatment of periodontal disease as primary or secondary. There are several types of treatments: massage, darsonvalization, vacuum therapy, electrophoresis. All these methods help to improve blood circulation in the gums.
Curettage. With the help of special instrument (curette), a manual cleaning of periodontal pockets. If a pocket deeper than 5 mm, the procedure is performed under local anesthesia. In severe cases need to cut the gums in order to clean up dead tissue and the area of the tooth root
Splinting. If the teeth are loosened, then in order to fix them using special tire-metal or fiberglass. Tires are mounted fixed or removable. Removable design is used, if not a few teeth. They are convenient because they were easier to carry out daily oral hygiene or treatment. Fixed splints are installed, if the possible loss of the entire dentition. Splinting is necessary to distribute the load evenly on all the teeth and fix them in one position. It does not affect the pronunciation of the patient and does not cause discomfort.
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Extreme measures in the treatment of gum disease is implants or surgery.
If the inflammatory process has begun in the deeper periodontal tissues, it cannot be completely cured, can only be stopped. The patient will certainly feel the results of treatment of the bleeding gums will disappear bad breath, strengthen teeth. But you’ll have to regularly visit the doctor to clean periodontal pockets and to undergo maintenance therapy.

The consequences of gum disease

In addition, the patient runs the risk of losing all your teeth, even if they are healthy, untreated periodontitis may contribute to the development of other serious pathologies.

Gum disease can provoke:

  • Pulpitis. Tooth infection penetrates into the pulp. It’s hard to diagnose because the crown is destroyed by caries, and the tooth looks healthy;
  • Osteomyelitis. Disease activity is provoked by pyogenic bacteria (those that produce pus). Is characterized by inflammation of the bone and soft tissues of the tooth;
  • Abscess of the soft tissues. Inflammation occurs within the gums, where the formation of purulent foci.

The main reason that causes diseases of the teeth and gums in humans, is bad oral hygiene and visit the dentist only in case of severe pain. Disease teeth in humans can develop for years, so skip them quite difficult. Since preventive methods are always less painful and cheaper, it is recommended to visit the dentist twice a year. Early detection of gum disease and their treatment will help to save not only the teeth, but will prevent the spread of dental infection. Now you know what is a disease of the gums and what causes it, and prevent the development of serious diseases.