Dislocation of the lower jaw: symptoms and treatment

Dislocation of the lower jaw is a common injury to this part of the face. What are the symptoms of trauma and how is it treated? What to do if a dislocated jaw? What kind of doctor deals with the reduction?

All of the questions we will answer in today’s material, as well as provide a number of photographs tell about different ways to solve problems, including in the home.

The structure of the lower jaw

The lower jaw is the only part of the skull, which can perform movement, which is the result of thousands of years of human evolution. This opened our mind to new opportunities, but also brought some trouble, due to the high mobility it has become increasingly prone to injury, including sprains. Upper jaw to dislocate impossible, it can only break, because it is stationary.

The bone of the lower jaw ends of the temporal joint, which is a fossa in sustava-temporal bone. High mobility gives us the opportunity not only to chew food but also to communicate with each other. The lower jaw can actively move vertically and not actively horizontally.

A dislocation occurs when a displaced temporomandibular joint, that is, its head jumps out of its socket. Constant trauma may indicate defects in the structure of the joint: either too small holes or very weak ligaments. If the offset is only partial, the return of the joint in a natural position without much effort, such a state is also called a subluxation.

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Reasons

To dislocate her jaw should be applied to the joint force more than that which can withstand ligament. Each person his different and therefore the injury which one will mean the dislocation, the other will cause only scrapes and bruises.

Why is dislocation of the mandible?

  • the weakening of the ligaments can be caused by pathology of growth, in this case, the person after an initial dislocation may suffer this problem regularly;
  • diseases of the nervous system: encephalitis, epilepsy. Their characteristic symptom is a convulsive disorder;
  • arthritis, osteomyelitis, gout cause pathology of the temporomandibular joint;
  • to provoke the dislocation can be too strong mouth opening during eating or speaking, bad habits (chewing or bite very hard objects).

Because of the peculiarities of the skull structure, in women, the jaw dislocation happens more often than in men. Most of the fairer sex, fossa of the temporomandibular joint are smaller than those of men.

Types of sprains

The broad classification is dependent on the following factors:

► At the location of the head temporomandibular joint relative to its fossa:

  • the rear head is behind fossa;
  • anterior – most common type of dislocation, the head is in front of the hole;
  • side one – head side of the pit.
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► The number of dislocations joint:

  • unilateral (right or left hand);
  • bilateral (affect both temporal mandibular joint), this species is more common than the first.

► In character:

  • traumatic (primary);
  • habitual (recurrent sprains, associated with the pathology of the structure of the temporomandibular joint). Appear when yawning too widely open mouth.

► On the severity of the injury:

  • light is characterized by only the displacement of the joint;
  • complex injury to the ligaments and other tissues that are near the joint.

Sometimes there are dislocations, provoked by the removal of the tooth. It is worth noting that if you do not treat trauma, it can lead to chronic form.

In rare cases, the dislocation can not be seen visually, it feels just the patient, but in other cases the damage outputs are skewed in one side of the jaw.

Photo

Symptoms of sprains and subluxations

► Depending on the type of injury symptoms can vary greatly, but there are common for all:

  1. Severe pain in the region of the temporomandibular joint, and the pain occur when the patient attempts the movement part of the body or its obezbijede condition.
  2. Limitation of movement of the lower jaw.
  3. The accumulation of excessive amounts of saliva in the oral cavity due to swallowing problems.

► At the same time, bilateral dislocation is characterized by the following signs:

  1. The patient is difficult to speak, speech slurred.
  2. In the ears is observed swelling and severe pain.
  3. The patient cannot completely close my mouth.

In the case of unilateral dislocation, the patient also suffers from swelling in the area below the ears and problems with speech, but the mouth he can cover, even though it causes pain.

► If the patient has a posterior dislocation of the lower jaw, he has observed these symptoms:

  1. Open mouth is almost impossible, attempts are accompanied by pain.
  2. In lying position problems with breathing.
  3. The lower jaw is visually fed back relative to the top.
  4. Other symptoms similar to the case with the other species, but manifest later.

How to determine lateral dislocation? Characterized by the same signs as for the rear, but the jaw is displaced aside relative to the vertical axis of the face. In the case of forward dislocation of the jaw moves forward towards the top.

Subluxation has its characteristic symptoms: the patient retains the ability to move the lower jaw, though, and feels this discomfort. The mouth can be closed, but the process is accompanied by a characteristic clicking in the region of the temporomandibular joint.

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Dislocated jaw treatment,

What to do if a dislocated jaw? Before treatment need to be examined by a doctor and get x-rays because the fracture of the jaw is often very similar to dislocation. Only a comprehensive diagnosis can help to properly diagnose.

There are several techniques and treatment methods, but they are focused on the implementation of the specialist. Each technique is suitable for reduction of a particular kind of dislocation, is that the orthodontist or the surgeon.

The Method Of Hippocrates

Before you reduce a dislocated jaw, the doctor puts thumbs gauze bandage or towel and stands in front of a patient sitting on a chair. The doctor inserts pre-wrapped fingers over the posterior teeth, and the other grabs your jaw from below. Then the upper fingers start to put pressure on the jaw in the lower direction, and the rest of the fingers pushing the collections up.

After this, the jaw should move back and immediately raise up. Such movements should restore the original state of the joint, evidence of which will be a distinctive click. Usually after this, the patient involuntarily closes his jaw. It is in order not to hurt your fingers during such manipulation, the doctor should wrap them with cloth bandages.

After a successful repositioning of the jaw the patient applied sling bandage and banned for week or widely opening the mouth sharply, as this may result in a relapse. With the same purpose not recommended to eat solid foods.

The Method Of Brahmana-Gershuni

There are two ways to reposition the jaw using this method:

  1. The doctor inserts fingers into the oral cavity of the patient and finds there the limbs of the joint, which was removed, then he pushes on the jaw, pushing it back and down at the same time. When returning the joint to its normal position it clicks.
  2. The doctor gropes for the end of the broken joint, but from the outside, then he performs the same movements as in the first embodiment. This technique causes less discomfort and the patient and physician.

Method Popescu

Is only in the case of long-standing dislocation of the jaw with the offset forward. For the application of this technique requires local anesthesia and put the patient on his back. Between the cheek and the dental arch, the doctor inserts cotton swabs with a diameter of about 2 inches. Then, you should push the jaw upwards and backwards.

Method Popescu not always help, and if failed the procedure reposition, will need surgery followed by wearing special devices.

Dentures

Dentures used to restore joints to normal, if there is a risk of recurrence, as in the case of chronic dislocation of the mandible. These devices are removable or permanent.

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The main purpose of structures is to make the patient too with your mouth wide open to avoid re-injury. The clips eventually lead the state jaw back to normal, but this does not mean that the risk of recurrent dislocation disappears forever.

A large spread of such structures for restoration of the lower jaw, as the camera Sound and petrosova, more details about this you can ask your doctor.

At home

Doctors categorically do not recommend to straighten the jaw in the home, because without a professional examination and x-ray cannot determine what you are dealing: with a fracture or dislocation.

However, if there is a habitual dislocation of the jaw, to reposition you can use the methods of Hippocrates and Blechman-Gershuni, but myself to push it very hard in any situation.

The main problems are the lack of specific skills of the one who carries out the reposition of the jaw and the lack of quality anesthesia. And if the patient can be given strong painkillers (Ketanov, for instance), it will slightly dull the pain, then the procedure is to reposition the person without a proper education it is very risky.

If the first attempt to fix the jaw failed, and the pain only intensified, then you should immediately stop trying and go to the professionals.

Much more useful to learn to provide the person with a presumptive mandibular dislocation first aid until the ambulance or its independent visit to the hospital.

  • do not force the patient to talk, let him answer your questions by nods;
  • determine the position in which the jaw is less likely, and lock it so;
  • at the first opportunity call the doctor for medical care.

Video: «little trouble — dislocation of the lower jaw,» Dr. Komorowski.

Further questions

► To what doctor to go, where to go?

Reduction of the jaw deals with the trauma surgeon or the orthodontist, which should be treated first.

► Code for ICD-10?

According to Mejdunarodnoi classification of diseases, dislocation of jaw S03 has code.0