Edentulous teeth (full, partial, primary, secondary): treatment

Today we’ll show you what occurs edentulous teeth, and describe the main methods of its treatment. You will learn the types of the disease: partial primary, complete secondary adentia.

We will describe the main symptoms of the disease, prevention methods, as well as tell you about the possible consequences.

What is edentulous?

Adontia is the absence in the oral cavity and individual teeth. Disease refers to abnormalities, and are often in dentistry. It violates the function of speech and mastication in humans.

Also, the absence of teeth in the mouth is not nice and not aesthetically pleasing, therefore in many patients the disease causes the development of complexes.


Principal edentulous:

  • primary – appearing from birth;
  • secondary is acquired during the entire life;
  • partial – missing teeth;
  • full – with no teeth.

The disease can be of 2 types at the same time. For example, it is found secondary partial lack of teeth. It is a congenital partial edentulous – no teeth to 10 from the moment of birth.

  1. The primary form of the disease in full form appears in milk, and even in the permanent teeth. This edentulous eventually breaks the symmetry of the face. The alveolar processes of the jaws develop correctly, and the roots of the teeth are completely absent in the oral cavity. To determine the absence of germs of deciduous teeth, need to do x-rays and conduct a feeling of the jaw. Also the lower jaw of the patient will seem much smaller. Disease permanent teeth are defined similarly to x-rays. It only needs to be done after a complete change of deciduous teeth.
  2. At the primary disease partial type — a few teeth are completely absent, is much more common in dentistry. The doctor can see on x-ray protezavimo between teeth with small gaps. This is the first sign of the primary disease. The disease can be in symmetric arrangement and, on the contrary, in asymmetric form. In the first case, not enough of the teeth left and right, fully in the same places. And asymmetric is possible to observe the absence of completely different teeth.
  3. Secondary disease with a partial view of the absence of some of the milk or adult teeth. Gradually begin to wear away the hard tissue of the teeth, and occurs hypersensitivity. Because of the illness people can not eat hard and too hot food.
  4. A secondary full – the absence of all the teeth in the oral cavity. It is an acquired illness which gradually develops and progresses. It affects both dairy and permanent teeth. Secondary adentia leads to a change in shape of the jaw, it is also very close to the nose and all the tissues in parrotboy is beginning to sink. This leads to the fact that people can’t chew even the softest food. When a patient is difficult to pronounce certain sounds, the function of speech. Full secondary disease occurs after tooth loss or after removal.
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► We will understand why there is the primary form of edentulous:

  1. Total loss of the primary tooth germ.
  2. Heredity.
  3. Some influence factors during the development of the dental plate in the fetus.

► Causes complete congenital forms:

  • manifestation of hypothyroidism;
  • pituitary dwarfism occurs;
  • the disease ichthyosis;
  • any infectious disease;
  • violation of the functions of development in the womb;
  • endocrine disruptions;
  • dysplasia, which is caused by heredity;

► And that’s why there is a secondary adentia:

  • injury of the teeth;
  • the manifestation of dental caries;
  • periodontitis occurs;
  • removal of dental root or tooth;
  • periostitis occurs;
  • a manifestation of an abscess;
  • periodontic;
  • disease of odontogenic osteomyelitis;
  • incorrect dental treatment;

It should be noted that the treatment of secondary disease should be started immediately. Otherwise, the disease can progress and lead to loss of all teeth.


Note first the main symptoms of the primary form:

  • disruption in the development of the skeleton. In the mouth there are no rudiments of teeth. This is evidenced too flat, the sky, the small size of the lower face, pronounced folds, hypoplasia of the maxilla
  • not fused some of the bones of the skull or jaw;
  • may be missing eyelashes and eyebrows. Before the skin begins to age and peresushivaya;
  • the inability to eat solid food. The patient can eat only soft and liquid food;
  • disturbed naso-oral breathing due to improper development of the jaw;
  • slurring of speech, difficulty in pronunciation of dental sounds;
  • between the teeth are clearly visible distance. Adjacent teeth begin to shift into the holes. During this process, the jawbone begins to grow incorrectly.

Signs of secondary adentia:

  • pronounced displacement of the jaw to the nose;
  • education in the face of many wrinkles;
  • tissues of the oral region are beginning to sink inward;
  • on the jaw bone protrusions are formed;
  • it affects the quality of speech;
  • teeth gradually shift, and diverge in different directions;
  • broken bone;
  • severe pain when closing the teeth;
  • the upper incisors and the two gradually begin to wear off;
  • there are small pockets in the gums or bones;
  • happens dislocation of temporomandibular joint.


Edentulous full diagnostics carried out by various specialists. The survey takes place in several stages:

  1. History collection.
  2. Clinical examination.
  3. Palpation examination.
  4. Intraoral radiography for the diagnosis of specific teeth.
  5. Panoramic radiography for examination of several teeth. Is fully edentulous.
  6. Removed with special dental.
  7. Inspecting the model of the jaw of the particular patient.
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All surveys allowed to assess the condition of the teeth, to detect tumors in the mouth and General signs of inflammation. Thanks to the results of the diagnosis, specialists will be able to appoint competent treatment for a particular patient.

After diagnosis and determination of the edentulous, the physician must assign the patient to the prosthesis. However, there are some factors that do not allow to do this type of treatment. Specialist needs with great attention to treat such diseases:

  • tumors and inflammatory processes in the mouth area;
  • the presence of exostosis;
  • disease in the lining of the mouth;
  • undeleted the roots of the teeth which covers the mucous membrane.

First, you need to eliminate these factors and only after that to start treatment.

Edentia and its treatment

For treatment of the disease, it is important to apply the prosthetics. For it use: removable dentures (partial or lamellar) and fixed structures (bridges).

The doctor prescribes treatment only after a complete examination and takes into account all peculiarities of the structure of the jaw of the patient.

  • restoration of the edentulous full type often prescribe prosthetics doctor sets in the oral cavity of the special implants, which will attach a design with prostheses;
  • in partial form, the expert is not installs the implants. As the basis used healed family teeth;
  • the manifestation of complete secondary adentia is important to restore all the basic functions of the jaw system. The doctor must prevent the complications and pathology. Only then can you move on to the prosthesis;
  • children with congenital disease to start the treatment with 3 years. Kids with edentulous prosthesis set with platinum. Note that they need to change every two years, as the body of the child gradually grows;
  • children with a partial form of putting a special prosthesis which can be removed at any time. As soon as the child stops growing, the jaw, the denture can be replaced by the permanent (bridge);
  • a child with primary partial edentulism have the right to direct the teeth to erupt in the right place. If the specialist will do everything carefully and correctly, then the patient will not be deformed jaw. When the child will erupt last and seventh teeth, you can get the full treatment. The doctor needs to understand exactly how many teeth are missing and which of techniques can be used. It is recommended to use implants for missing teeth child also have the option to install ceramic partial crowns or inlays.

After the installation of the prosthesis may occur some side effects: you receive prosthetic stomatitis may be allergic to some materials of the prosthesis or the dyes, the appearance of bedsores in deshovyh tissues.

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Before treatment you need to follow some recommendations:

  • to conduct a complete hygiene of the mouth;
  • remove the decayed roots and teeth, which are not subject to treatment;
  • a comprehensive treatment of caries, periodontitis, pulpitis and periodontitis;
  • to completely eliminate the hypersensitivity of the teeth.

Video: how to treat edentulous?

The consequences

If you do not take action and begin treatment on time, adontia will lead to unpleasant consequences:

  1. Speech disorder — many sounds are pronounced unclear and indistinct.
  2. People will not be able to chew and bite on solid food. After some time you will eat only liquid food. Also, the difficulty arises with the intake of hot and cold food.
  3. The lack of vitamins in the diet due to malnutrition will lead to various diseases of the stomach.
  4. If you are missing some teeth in the oral cavity, temporomandibular joint starts working incorrectly. Over time this will lead to dangerous inflammation.
  5. Absence of teeth leads to a strong psychological discomfort. Man begins to complex, to communicate less with people. This leads to depression and nervous disorders.

As you can see, edentulous spoils the quality of life and limits many functions. Therefore, it is important to start treatment at the very first manifestations of the disease. At the initial stage can affect the disease and to prevent dangerous consequences.

Preventive measures

To prevent the occurrence of edentulous need to be attentive to the health of your teeth. Follow some simple tips:

  • regularly visit the dentist and get checked out to prevent;
  • for any disease of the teeth, immediately contact a competent treatment. Visit the doctor in the first days;
  • in case of loss of several teeth, immediately go to the prosthetics. Then you will be able to stop the progression of the disease;
  • to prevent congenital adentia of the baby, you need to create the best possible conditions for fetal development. Exclude any risks and avoid dangerous products.

If the child does not begin to erupt teeth, immediately contact the doctor.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

According to the international classification of diseases of teeth is edentulous code К00.0.