Erosion of tooth enamel-pictures, causes and treatment effects

Not uncommon such diseases as erosion of tooth enamel. Will provide photos, describe the causes and treatment and also about the consequences of this defect. And though many think that this is just a cosmetic problem, in fact, erosion is a serious disease.

To ignore it is not necessary, as the consequences can affect not only the appearance of the smile, but also on the integrity of the dentition. With regular visits to the dentist to detect this problem in its initial stages, when there is no pain, no obvious discolorations.

What is erosion of tooth enamel?

This defect relates to non-carious lesions of the dentition. The first history of the disease does not manifest itself apart from a small convex portions on the surface and increased sensitivity to hot and cold foods and beverages.

And only if the extent of the disease, you may notice the increasing distribution of dark spots, pain, significant abrasion of hard tissues, etc. If you ignore the problem and to solve it is merely a nuisance, it is possible to wait for more profound defeat not only enamel but also dentin.

Causes

Doctors have not yet determined the exact factors in the emergence of this disease because it can occur in almost any person. Even the observance of hygienic procedures are not safeguards against erosion. And yet, in search of the reasons why there is such a defect on healthy teeth, experts came up with the following options:

  • Any mechanical damage of the enamel surface. For example, if too frequent use of toothpastes with abrasive substances or to get involved in bleaching remedies at home, you can scratch the tooth and lead to erosion.
  • Chemical exposure in the form of acidic drinks, foods, drinking vinegar, citrus, etc. With frequent influence of various corrosive acids on the tooth surface can cause his defeat.
  • The existence of problems in the endocrine system is a frequent companion and, most likely, the cause of such defect.
  • Increased load on the dentition when abnormal occlusion or absence of individual pieces of chewing function occurs unevenly.
  • Some medicines also can cause the erosion of enamel in the form of side effect.
  • In industries with a metallic or mineral dust, and when working with chemicals.

Whatever the causes diagnosis and treatment need to be delayed.

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Photo

The consequences

It is noticed that this disease is more common in adult patients, especially middle age category. But the child of enamel erosion occurs much less frequently. But whenever the first symptoms they need time to begin to be addressed, as the consequences can be quite serious:

  1. Greatly accelerated tooth wear, i.e. increases their attrition.
  2. Over time, dark spots appear, and then the surface can be completely dark.
  3. The sensitivity on cold and hot leads patients to significant pain.
  4. Changing the hue of the enamel will lead to uneven color distribution and the edge unit may be transparent.

If the erosion reaches the destruction of the dentine, then the obvious consequence will be the complete destruction of the hard tissues and the appearance of other dental problems.

The stage of the disease

If you do not visit the dentist, the first stage may view, as in this period almost no visible change occurs. Doctors distinguish this classification erosion of the enamel:

  1. The initial stage, when the damage affects the surface area and almost imperceptibly a cursory examination.
  2. Average – damage reaches to the inner layers and causes an increase in tooth sensitivity.
  3. Deep stage at which the erosion has almost completely destroyed the enamel and start to affect the dentin.

In addition, you can define and phase of the disease. This:

  • Active, where the clinic will be revealed fairly quickly and vividly. The rapid development of erosion covers a large part of the dentition, causes discomfort to the patient and in a relatively short period changes the color of the enamel.
  • The stable phase is much calmer and almost never manifests any symptoms. Usually it occurs due to the formation of tertiary dentin, which creates a protective barrier and blocks the discomfort.

How does erosion of tooth enamel?

The symptoms look different, and if not to give himself away until the destruction will not reach the inner part of the tooth. All depends on the phases and stages of erosion.

  1. In the initial stages there is only a slight darkening of the shade of the enamel, loss of gloss in some places. Notice the changes only after full drying of the surface or applying drops of iodine on the tooth. Then the affected area once it becomes highlighted. Erosion looks like a whitish oval convex education.
  2. With the average level of the lesion, the patient may feel discomfort when consuming hot and cold drinks and food.
  3. And only at the last stage the symptoms of the disease manifest themselves quite clearly. Change the shade of teeth, there is a tangible pain, even to hygienic treatment.
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The stages of diagnosis

The doctor during the examination should conduct a differential diagnosis, which will help to make an accurate diagnosis. Because of enamel erosion largely in appearance similar to the cervical caries and wedge shaped defect, which it is necessary to distinguish. Only if the correct diagnosis is possible to speak about successful treatment. Carry out the following procedure:

  • For finding the spots in the initial stage, it is sufficient to use the iodine, which will stain defect in a bright shade.
  • From the mentioned diseases erosion features form and location, as well as a smooth surface.
  • In addition to offices, it is necessary to make a diagnosis from a gastroenterologist and an endocrinologist who can install, malfunctions in the thyroid or other glands of internal secretion.

Than at an earlier stage the disease is, the harder it is to recognize, but easier to resolve.

Treatments

Only by installing the correct diagnosis, you can decide what to do next. Usually the doctor prescribes any of these procedures:

  • The most important is the carrying out of conservative therapy in the form of applications with fluoride and calcium on the affected part of the tissue. Such a course can last 2-3 weeks, after which the surface is covered with fluoride varnish.
  • With a similar aim of restoring the mineral composition of the tooth is carried out electrophoresis with calcium.
  • If the units are badly damaged and require correction of hard tissues, the doctor may recommend veneers, a superimposition of light-cured composite or prosthetics with crowns.
  • Carry out restorative the rate at which prescribed drugs with a high content of fluoride and calcium, and multivitamin complexes.
  • To correct discolorations or age spots appeared making a surface-polishing with special pastes, whitening treatments, and coating with lacquer or gel with fluoride.

The duration, complexity and peculiarities of treatment will depend on the degree of destruction of enamel erosive processes. In some cases, the doctor may decide on stopping. But this method of treatment can only be applied in combination with conservative therapy to the filling material could well to gain a foothold.

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Video: a dentist talks about tooth enamel.

Preventive measures

The emergence of erosion of the enamel is associated with internal diseases and some aggressive external influence. Therefore, the hygiene of the oral cavity as prevention ineffective. In order to prevent the formation of such a defect should follow simple rules:

  • Discard foods and beverages that contain especially high concentrations of different acids. If this is difficult to do, at least try to use such a drink through a straw without holding it in your mouth for a long period.
  • Stop to eat hot food, because the high temperature faster and can have negative effects than too low.
  • To neutralize the acidity in the mouth, you can use the gum, not containing sugar or a piece of cheese.
  • After intake of acidic food not immediately start cleaning your teeth. It is better to wait about an hour and then treat the surface.
  • And immediately after eating be sure to rinse mouth with antibacterial solution or plain water.
  • Hygiene to do with a soft brush, without affecting the surface too much.
  • If for any purpose you use toothpaste with abrasive particles, then after two to three weeks replace it to normal, and make a significant break.
  • Do not get carried away folk remedies for teeth whitening.
  • Periodically clean the paste with a high content of fluoride and calcium.
  • Regular visits to the dentist will help to identify the defect in the initial stage and with the least impact to treat it.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

In the International classification of enamel erosion under code К03.2 and relates to other diseases of hard tissues of teeth.