Geographic tongue causes treatment: glossitis in a child

Geographic tongue: causes and treatment still cause some controversy among specialists, is a disease of degenerative nature. Pathology, as a rule, does not cause concern to the patient and are diagnosed accidentally, when carrying out an inspection on another occasion. Emerging complaints are often caused joining infection.


The official name of the disease, desquamative glossitis, literally translates as inflammation of the mucous membrane of the tongue, accompanied by exfoliation of the tissues. The term, which began this article, originated from the language of the patient, resembling a geographic map. On his back, and the front surface there are areas of desquamation (exfoliation), alternating with the hypertrophic (thickened) areas. Desquamative glossitis is equally likely to be diagnosed as a child and an adult. The disease is often secondary in nature, being the consequence of another, more serious pathology.

Geographic tongue can occur when there is a patient of multiple diseases.

  1. A lack or excess of vitamins of group «b»
  2. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Gastritis;
  • Gastroduodenitis;
  • Ulcer of the stomach;
  • Duodenal ulcer;
  • Malabsorption syndrome (violation of the process of nutrient absorption in the small intestine);
  • Liver disease;
  • Cancer processes in the digestive tract.
  1. Disorders in the endocrine system
  • Pathology of the adrenal glands;
  • Pathology of the pancreas;
  • Pathology of the thyroid gland.
  1. Autoimmune diseases
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus;
  • Rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Multiple sclerosis;
  • Diabetes type 1 diabetes.
  1. Viral infection with severe course
  • SARS;
  • Infectious mononucleosis.
  1. Incorrect and uncontrolled use of antibacterial agents
  2. Gusseted tongue

Gusseted tongue is a genetic trait development and not a disease. This feature is not always accompanied by glossitis. The latter occurs in case of refusal hygienic measures or insufficient volume. In the folds of the tongue accumulates and is actively developing microorganisms which cause inflammation.

The child desquamative glossitis may be a reaction to teething, immunization, worm infestation. In addition, the disease is accompanied by 65 percent of the cases of exudative diathesis.


The development of desquamative glossitis is as follows:

  1. The language forms a whitish-gray spot;
  2. The spot swells, in the centre of the filiform papillae become visible;
  3. Is sloughing of epithelium and exposure located below the tissue;
  4. Appear bright red patches of rounded shape;
  5. Areas where there was desquamation of the epithelium, lifted above the surface of the tongue and are rapidly increasing in size;
  6. When deskvamirovannyh areas significantly increase the intensity of the processes of shedding them slows down;
  7. The boundaries of the pathological area to get fuzzy;
  8. In the centre starts the process of regeneration, restores normal keratinization.

It is noteworthy that the areas of keratinization and desquamation are constantly migrating. Where yesterday was a bright red spot, today it may be almost normal tissue and Vice versa. The sustainable recovery of the stratum plots in glossitis desquamative type occurs.

Symptoms and diagnosis

The objective symptoms is the presence in the language of the red spots. They can be circular or have the shape of half rings. In the centre you notice an area with naked papillary layer. Areas of desquamation is sometimes placed not only on language but also on the inner surface of the cheeks and palate.

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Subjective symptoms of the disease are absent in the early stages. Later, when the affected areas grow, the patient may experience a feeling of light burning, numbness, itching. In some cases, there is a change in taste sensitivity, a negative reaction to the spicy, salty, sour and other irritating foods. Children also complain of a frightening appearance of language.

Diagnosis is based on clinical picture and subjective complaints of the patient. Certain diagnostic value has the life history of the patient and the events that took place shortly before the appearance of the first signs of glossitis. The disease often occurs after severe psychological stress and exacerbation of chronic diseases.


In the absence of pronounced discomfort caused by the disease geographic tongue treatment the specific type is not possible. The efforts of the physician should be aimed at a thorough diagnosis, identification and elimination of root causes of desquamation. Given the fact that the glossitis can be caused by multiple factors, the patient must undergo a full course of medical examination. Treatment of desquamative glossitis may be local and General.

Local treatment

Complaints of burning, pain, itching, deterioration of taste is an indication for the rehabilitation of the oral cavity with the use of antiseptics. The patient can be assigned to rinse with Miramistin, chlorhexidine, potassium permanganate solution, a weak solution of baking soda, etc. the Procedure is performed daily, preferably after each meal. Otherwise the language is the active development of colonies of pathogenic microflora, which leads to further deterioration.

To reduce the sensitivity may apply the rinse or application with produces the anasthetic substances able to be absorbed from the mucous membranes (lidocaine, benzocaine). Tissue repair is accelerated by using a agent funds (vitamin «A» in the form of oil solution, rosehip oil) and regenerative medicines for local use (solcoseryl). In addition, the patient is recommended a visit to the dentist for removal of all existing foci of caries and other sources of infection.

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In severe cases the patient is held novocaine blockade in the region of the hypoglossal nerve. The course of treatment is 10 days. Novocaine relieves discomfort, however, can violate the perception of taste of food and to break the process of swallowing.

General treatment

A common tactic of medical treatment should be directed at reducing the immune alertness of the body, the replenishment of necessary substances, the fight against acceding infection. Patients prescribed the following drugs:

Multivitamin complexes or vitamins. Vitamins contribute to the acceleration of regenerative processes, normalizes metabolism, restores neuromuscular conductivity. Taking multivitamin complexes should be carried out over 2-4 weeks or more. Duration of treatment determined by the physician.
Desensitizing (anti-allergic) therapy. The need for antihistamines are often caused by the autoimmune nature of desquamative glossitis. The drugs reduce the level of sensitization and the intensity of the disease. The choice of drugs and duration of treatment is determined only by the doctor. Self-administration of Allergy medications can lead to negative consequences.
Antibacterial therapy. Antibiotics prescribed for infection sites exfoliated bacterial microflora. Usually, this manifests itself in the form of an unpleasant taste in the mouth, amplify the symptoms of the disease, deposits of white on the tongue. The drugs of choice are a/b broad-spectrum, can affect various strains of microorganisms. Often used tablet means (Amoxiclav). Antimicrobial drugs may be administered topically, in the form of baths for the mouth.

Popular recipes

Recipes of traditional medicine can be used as auxiliary means. Mainly used in herbal teas, plant-based, vitamin cocktails, oil solutions:

  1. Decoctions of chamomile, sage, oak bark. Have disinfecting and tanning effects. Method of application rinsing without subsequent swallowing;
  2. Olive oil, boiled in a water bath for 20 minutes. Has a moisturizing effect. To achieve the effect required to cool the oil to an acceptable temperature, dial it in your mouth and hold for 1-2 minutes then spit;
  3. Lotions with fish oil or peach oil. Contribute to the regeneration of tissues, nourishes the skin with essential fatty acids and vitamins.
  4. A mixture of baking soda, iodine and water (1/2 teaspoon a tablespoon of soda and 3 drops of iodine in 200 ml of liquid). Used as vegetable decoctions.

Forecasts and current

Depending on the kind of underlying disease, geographic tongue may persist for different amounts of time, from 2 weeks to several years. For glossitis chronic with periodic remissions and exacerbations. Relapses occur at the time of exacerbation of the basic pathological process.

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A disease like geographic tongue, has a favorable prognosis. The process is not zlokacestvennoe, does not extend beyond the mouth, symptoms of illness do not have a significant impact on the quality of human life. The child process of desquamation is slightly more intense than that of an adult. However, with age, the recurrence of the disease can be stopped without treatment.



Diet in desquamative glossitis similar to that in other diseases of the digestive system. The patient should be excluded from the diet of spicy, sour, excessively salty meals and other foods that have stimulating effects. It is undesirable to use carbonated drinks. It is recommended to drink more water and fortified fluids (juices, fruit drinks).

The healing process is usually delayed if the patient continues to drink alcohol or to smoke. As ethanol and nicotine has a pronounced irritant effect and does not mix well with drugs. Bad habits need to be abandoned at least for the period of treatment.


Specific prevention of desquamative glossitis does not exist. However, partly to protect themselves from this disease can be, if you follow a few General recommendations:

  1. Hygiene of the oral cavity: it is mandatory to remove all existing foci of infection (dental caries, inflammation of mucous membranes);
  2. In the evening the child is better to rinse your mouth decoctions of herbs. A similar measure can be applied in adulthood;
  3. Avoiding the use of tooth powder, containing menthol and peppermint oil;
  4. Prophylactic administration of multivitamins;
  5. Adequate nutrition, including all the necessary human body elements;
  6. Timely detection of systemic diseases and their treatment.

In addition to the points present in the above list, to the prevention of geographic tongue include avoiding alcohol and Smoking. This measure allows not only to prevent many diseases (including glossitis), but also to extend the life, maintain mental and physical abilities for years to come.