Gingivitis in adults: symptoms, treatment, photos, causes

Gingivitis refers to common diseases and are often diagnosed in adults, with symptoms and treatment depend on the form of the disease. The article presents a photo and also the causes that lead to the development of inflammation of the gums.

Gingivitis develops as a standalone or concomitant lesions of the gums. Clinical manifestations are diverse due to the variety of forms of the disease, so treatment varies depending on the type and degree of involvement of the gums in the process.

What is gingivitis?

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the marginal gingiva that can affect a single papilla, located between two adjacent teeth, and an extensive area covering the entire jaw. The disease spreads only to the mucous membrane, with the bone structure remains unchanged from the teeth does not occur mobility.

The disease has characteristic symptoms, the severity of which varies on the severity of the occurrence of gingivitis. History of the disease has classic signs of the inflammatory process.

  1. Hyperemia of the gingival margin.
  2. Bleeding.
  3. Swelling of the soft tissues.

In addition, the frequent companion of gingivitis is pain, difficult eating. The disease is most effortless manifestations of periodontal disease, and with timely treatment, easy to treat without complications.

Types and classification

Practicing dentists adhere to the clinical classification of the disease in which there is the separation of gingivitis according to the severity, form of the disease, localization and other characteristics.

► According to the severity of gingivitis klassificeret:

  • mild – manifested weak hyperemia of the papilla, while the man has no complaints, with the exception of bleeding while brushing your teeth;
  • medium – captures the entire edge is free of the gum that is bleeding, light swelling and redness;
  • heavy – inflammatory process extends to the alveolar part of the mucosal occurs halitosis, severe swelling and redness, causing severe pain.

► The nature of the disease gingivitis are:

  • acute clinical symptoms are severe, the patient indicates deterioration severe discomfort in the mouth and inflammation of the gums;
  • chronic – is characterized by a slow progression of the disease, which does not violate their way of life;
  • exacerbation of chronic gingivitis – pathology occurs after exposure to causal factors and resembles the acute form of the disease.

► Symptoms of gingivitis appear. In form and distinction of the clinical picture of the disease is divided into four groups:

  • the catarrhal is the most simple form and is manifested in inflammation of the interdental papillae and marginal gingiva. However, she becomes smoothed, lost prominence, when probing bleeding occurs and is determined by a large number of both soft and mineralized plaque;
  • ulcerative-necrotic, characterized by a severe course, the standard manifestations of inflammation of the gums joins deterioration, hyperthermia, mucosal ulcers are formed;
  • hypertrophic is overgrowth of the soft tissues, causing the crowns of the teeth are partially or completely hidden by the gums, which hurts and is very itchy and bleeds;
  • atrophic – this form of gingivitis is observed pathological process opposite to the previous one – there is a loss of soft tissue, which leads to the formation of recessions. The disease is spread among children.

► Inflammation of the gums is not only an independent disease, some forms are related and speak about the presence of irregularities in the functioning of the body.

  1. Desquamative gingivitis often accompanies dermatological disorders or is one of the symptoms of allergies. Expressed in desquamation of the epithelium of the gums, due to which it becomes crimson, bloody and painful.
  2. Herpetic gingivitis – there is the weakening of the immune response of the body and is caused by the herpes simplex virus. Has the characteristic features of herpes infection – vesicles, after damage which occur erosion.
  3. Vincent gingivitis – the cause of the disease is considered to be a spirochete Vincent. Manifested by ulcerative and necrotic lesions on the gums.
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What causes gingivitis? The main causes of

The main source from which there is inflammation of the gums, is considered to be a low level of oral hygiene. Rich soft plaque, the accumulation of stones, such as above the gum and below it, triggers the growth of pathogenic microflora, and also has a mechanical effect on periodontal tissues. The body tries to fight the infection causing the inflammatory reaction.

In addition to cleanliness in the oral cavity, there are other reasons why the occurrence of gingivitis.

  1. The drop in the level of immune protection.
  2. The malocclusion.
  3. Poor sanitation of the oral cavity (overhanging edges of restorations and sharp edges subthalamic designs that injure the gums).
  4. Mineralized supra — and subgingival deposits.
  5. The period of pregnancy.
  6. Violations of hormonal levels on the background of puberty.
  7. Vitamin deficiency and mineral deficiency.
  8. Trauma to the gums.
  9. Serious diseases (AIDS, diabetes, hepatitis)

The tooth is covered with this – the finest shell of their glycoproteins, the coating serving as a mantle for the enamel. In the process of brushing it removed, but after a short time occurs again. Biofilm is involved in the formation of dental plaque. With low hygienic status of oral cavity this is a place of accumulation of microbes that produce toxins, acting negatively on the soft tissue. The site of maximum contact and causes inflammation of the gums.



Signs of gingivitis are different, depending on the form of the disease. But there are some common symptoms indicating the development of inflammation in the gums.

  1. Hyperemia.
  2. Soreness of varying degrees.
  3. Swelling and increase in size.
  4. Sensitivity and decrease the threshold of irritability of the mucous membrane.
  5. Violation of the gingival contour.

Frequent companion of gingivitis is bad breath. It appears due to the complexity of high-quality cleansing enlarged gums and remove food remnants from a false periodontal pockets.

Let us consider manifestations of each of the forms of gingivitis:

  • catarrhal characterized by common signs of gingivitis, the patient has no complaints, except for the mention of hemorrhage;
  • ulcerative-necrotic surface of gingiva is covered with sores, in the absence of proper treatment which nekrotizirutee, with worse overall health, there is a slight fever, there is pain in the mouth and halitosis. Often a form of gingivitis accompanied by an increase in the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes;
  • hypertrophic – is a strong growth of the gums covering a significant portion of the tooth, while it does not lose its density. Color changed tissues may remain unchanged;
  • atrophic – there is the involution of the marginal plot of the gingival papillae decrease in size, which leads to the formation of free spaces between the teeth, formed by the recession of the gums. Bleeding and discomfort may not occur.

The main differences from gingivitis and other gum diseases

Differential diagnosis of different forms of gingivitis is carried out with periodontitis and periodontal disease.

The main differences between a simple inflammation of the gums and periodontitis is as follows.

  1. Periodontitis is the result of gingivitis that has not been timely cured.
  2. Periodontitis is the destruction of alveoli and reduced height of attachment of the ligament, which occurs due to the retention of the tooth in the hole.
  3. Formed pathological pockets.

Periodontal disease refers to the destructive processes, so the main difference between these two diseases is atrophy of the interdental partitions and the exposure of roots, which causes loosening of the teeth. In chronic periodontal disease development of symptoms of inflammation are observed.

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How to treat gingivitis?

When diagnosing gingivitis in the early stages, it’s easily therapy. Thanks to modern techniques the recovery occurs after 10-15 days from the start of treatment of gingivitis. However, if the disease has moved into the chronic stage, then get rid of it will not be easy.

The choice of treatment method depends on several parameters that must be considered when developing an individual method of rehabilitation of the oral cavity.

  1. Form of the disease.
  2. The severity of the lesion.
  3. The etiology of gingivitis.
  4. The age of the patient.

To cure gingivitis requires a comprehensive approach, including both local and overall effects. The treatment begins with a quality diagnosis, after which the periodontist performs a professional dental cleaning: removes soft plaque and tooth stones, and then polishes the tooth surface.

Already at this stage, significant improvement of the clinical picture. Many patients, inspired by the observed changes, do not continue prescribed treatment that in a short time to relapse.

Treatment of gingivitis involves the use of medications, and if severe lesions of the gums, these patients require a small surgical intervention:

  • vitamins – help to maintain the immune system, and consuming vitamin C enhances the elasticity of the vascular wall, thereby reducing its fragility and bleeding stop;
  • antibiotics – most often used during ulcero-necrotic form to eliminate pathogenic bacteria. The most effective means are metronidazole, lincomycin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. Drugs are prescribed both for oral administration and in the form of local applications of ointments;
  • chlorhexidine is a popular tool used in cases when it is necessary to achieve decontamination of the surface. Rinsing with a solution of the drug 2-3 times per day significantly reduces the level of contamination of the oral cavity;
  • Holisal – gel is used to eliminate dental inflammatory processes. In addition to the primary action has an analgesic effect and fights bacteria. After brushing antiseptic rinsing and drying with a gauze swab the affected surface, the tool is rubbed into the gums. The procedure is performed for 10 days twice a day;
  • Tantum Verde – solution, which of benzydamine hydrochloride, has the effect to eliminate inflammation. Used in a rinse that is performed twice daily for 10 days.

In addition to taking medications, you need to monitor the quality of brushing, change your toothbrush to a soft and to use a toothpaste designed for the relief of gingivitis. Remember that medications, especially antibiotics, are used only as directed by your periodontist.

Treatment at home

Conduct home therapy of gingivitis is possible, but before you get rid of gingivitis with the help of folk medicine, be sure to visit the dentist. The use of herbal medicine gives good result for treatment after the carried out medical procedures in the oral cavity:

  • a decoction of calendula, steamed in a thermos, the infusion of medicinal plants strain and use for washing the gums morning and evening and after each meal;
  • oak bark – is not only anti-inflammatory but also astringent, which occurs due to rapid elimination of bleeding;
  • sage infusion – 2 tablespoons dry collection, you must pour 300 ml of boiling water and let stand, then rinse the gums 4-5 times a day;
  • broth chamomile – 10 grams of chamomile flowers place in the enameled vessel, pour 0.5 liters of water and boil. After cooling is used for irrigation of the oral cavity.

In the treatment of gingivitis, consult the opinion of an expert and do not use the advice of people who do not have medical education, because the wrong treatment sore gums can lead to complications.

Features power

To stop gingivitis, it is important to pay attention to the foods that comprise your daily diet.

  1. Vitamin C contained in citrus fruits, currants, sauerkraut, allows to eliminate bleeding and strengthen blood vessels.
  2. In apples and pears lot of pectin and substances that contribute to enhanced regeneration.
  3. Carrots, zucchini, grapes contain antioxidants that speed up metabolism and reduce the period required for healing of soft tissues.
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In the period of exacerbation of the disease do not eat foods rich in fast carbs, because they are a favorable environment for bacteria to grow. To avoid irritation of the gums eliminate spicy and salty.

During pregnancy

Gingivitis in pregnancy is provided in a separate group of diseases of the gums. In the period of nurturing of the child, the female body has been subjected to severe loads, consumes standby power and substance on fetal development.

Altered hormonal profile affects bones and soft tissues of the oral cavity. With insufficient health care and low flow in the mother’s body of vitamins and minerals is disturbed vascular permeability, leading to bleeding gums. It becomes hyperemic, edematous and friable.

To avoid this unpleasant complications in pregnancy, it is necessary to follow simple recommendations.

  1. Visits to the dentist for the purpose of occupational hygiene.
  2. To care about the state of the mouth.
  3. To eat well.
  4. For care of gums to apply not only the brush with toothpaste, but dental floss, mouthwash and oral irrigator.

Video: gingivitis — definition, causes, symptoms.


To prevent inflammation of the gums is quite simple, for this you should make a habit of the following:

  • follow the health of the oral cavity and visit the dentist for preventive examinations;
  • eat foods rich in vitamins, eat fruits, vegetables, dairy and meat products;
  • daily care of teeth and gums: brush twice a day, clean the flossing areas between teeth after eating, rinse your mouth with clean water;
  • perform at least once in six months professional care.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

Gingivitis and periodontal disease belong to the class К05. While the acute form has a code К05.0, except for herpetic gingivitis (В00.2), and ulcerative-necrotic (A69.1). Chronic inflammation of the gums is encoded К05.1

► Gingivitis is contagious or not?

Inflammation of the gums is not related to contagious disease, excluding gingivitis caused by the herpes simplex virus.

► What is the difference between disease periodontal disease, periodontitis, gingivitis?

All three diseases belong to the pathology of the gingival tissue, but differ in the degree of involvement in the process the deep structures of the periodontium. With gingivitis, there is only inflammation in the gingiva, without affecting the ligaments and the jawbone. Periodontitis is characterized by the reduced height of the alveolar walls and the formation of periodontal pockets. Periodontitis refers to destructive diseases, so with this defeat, a decrease in the height of attachment of the gums, exposure of roots, atrophy of bone tissue, leading to loose teeth.

► How many days treated?

To achieve recovery from gingivitis in the acute stage, subject to fulfilling all the requirements of accelerated training integrated approach for 10-12 days. In chronic course of the process should be systematic courses aimed at obtaining a stable remission of the disease.