Growing teeth from stem cells: technology, price
Scientists today are developing methods of growing human teeth from stem cells. What technologies they have, and what price will be for the average patient, we will try to describe below.
The loss of even one tooth in a row becomes tangible on an emotional and physiological level. To restore your smile and chewing function try due to the implantation and prosthesis. But it is possible that very soon doctors will offer no artificial substitute and the natural tissue, the survival rate of which will be much higher.
In dentistry has long wondered how to make a tooth grow in the jaw as many times as required. After all, nature has only two periods – the first milk units and change them to permanent.
The first scientific developments in growing teeth in humans began in 2002 in the UK. For the experiment used six-month pigs and rats. Pamela Yelick conducted the following manipulation:
- Taken immature cells of dental tissue in animals and placed in special enzymes.
- When they were formed, they were transferred to a plate of a polymer which is decomposed under the influence of the developing cells.
- You have already created, so full were the beginnings violales in the soft tissue of rats.
- After three months it was possible to notice that appears above the gum line crowns.
However, grown by this method teeth had its drawbacks – the dentin was defective, the enamel was absent, and the root is not fully formed.
Based on these data in Japan decided to move on. In 2007, we conducted an experiment at Tokyo University of science under the guidance of Takashi Tsuji. Here as the test subjects were mice. And even managed to achieve full formation of the dentin, however, above the tooth roots had to work extra.
The experiment continued two years, when the Japanese decided to use a different technology. For this they used certain cells of mice that are responsible for the growth and development of teeth by nature. Put them in the environment of collagen and stimulated the growth. After the transplant in place a remote unit, the scientists were able to achieve full germination of the tooth. This created not only the desired structure of the crown and root, but also the neurovascular bundle of the pulp.
The gene responsible for the growth of teeth
Scientists drew attention to the genes that regulate the number of units in the adult, their appearance, the procedure, the presence of the rudiments, structure, and time of eruption. Close up the matter with the doctors at the University of Zurich.
So, it is revealed that the increase in units on the jaw meets gene called Jagged2 and Notch chromosome. They work in pairs, and when the first ceases to perform its function, the second gives error.
Another Osr2 gene responsible for the formation of the structure and position of the tooth crown. And if you somehow disable it, they start to appear in the wrong and unexpected places, grow with obvious deformities and even cleft palate is done.
A gene called Msx1 full control of laying the rudiments of the future teeth. Thanks to him we have, first appears 20 dairy units, and then they in due time changed to permanent, and then grow 12. However, not all people have the beginnings of a fully formed and correctly.
Interestingly, if you disable the above genes, except the last one, that isolated teeth can still penetrate. But if disrupted Msx1, even the beginnings are not formed at all. Therefore, scientists have adopted that this gene need to use for self-cultivation teeth.
As a continuation of the study on the restoration of the dentition in this way Professor Mitsialis came to the conclusion that the activity of genes need to be used in conjunction with stem cells taken from the rudiments of dental tissues. Their common work will lead to the formation of a full unit.
Stem cells are able to regenerate damaged tissues, to replace lost parts of his own division, so this method may become a real breakthrough in the world of natural restoration of teeth.
Thoughtful method in the theory as simple as possible:
- taken stem cells placed in alveolar cavity, from which the previously dropped or removed tooth;
- after some time at this place the Bud is formed, similar to the one that appears in the embryo;
- further there is a process of growth, development and eruption of that the feelings should resemble a similar period in childhood.
Obviously, this method for growing teeth from stem cells is very reminiscent of their natural appearance. As a result, the unit formed fully formed, in his place, and has all the structural elements.
But there are also a number of disadvantages in practical use of the method:
- Every year the person becomes less stem cells, and if in 25 years they can still be 1 in 100 thousand, in a more Mature age is found only 1 in 500 000.
- The very seizure of such cells is difficult and very painful process. The task for scientists is the discovery of a simple way to collect material.
The successful development of growing teeth showed that it is possible to do, as there are certain achievements:
- formed, thus, the crown fully corresponds to the natural structure;
- the anatomical structure of the grown tooth also fits natural and contains all the right elements – the neuro-vascular bundle, pulp, dentin, and enamel;
- the hardness and strength of the formed tissue is so high that allows you to perform all the functional load of the jaw.
But the drawback remains the size of the raised units, which is slightly smaller in volume. However, the researchers did not stop there and invent new technology for the most natural restoration of the dentition.
Yourself methods for growing hard tissues can be divided into:
- External which form a unit outside the oral cavity, e.g., in vitro or special cells, gels, etc., and only when the tooth grew, transplanted into the empty hole.
- Internal – stem cells isolated from, for example, lost milk teeth, injected under the mucosa. And in the gums is the development and growth of the whole unit. However, this method is not worked out long enough.
Among the outer ways emphasize two:
- When the tooth is growing in organic culture. To do this, take mesenchymal and epithelial cells and placed them in the collagen frame. It will be formed here, Bud. The time of growth of the tooth is about two weeks. But he is fully formed and has all the anatomical complex of elements.
- Using a special test tube in which you place the same cell for formation of tooth germ. After a certain phase shift in the capsule and implanted into the liver of the mouse.
In addition to gene technology, some scholars are completely innovative psychosocial methods of reprogramming. These include:
- Method Petrov – when the patient finds out about the exact structure of the tooth, its root system and the structure of the crown. Then he mentally places the stem cells of the bone marrow to the place where needed to strengthen the tooth and is the whole process of the formation of the embryo and growth of the unit.
- Method Veretennikova largely similar to the previous one, but here we must consider not only the structure of the tooth, but the correctness of their eruption, the order of appearance, from the lower incisors to large indigenous in the strict natural order. The scientist offers to mentally represent the germination of a small tooth, as the seed, creating the sensation of pressure.
- Technology Stolbova – scientist, which in my experience has shown that the effects of thoughts it is possible to grow at least 17 teeth in a row! In addition to creating thought-forms in parallel, it should give up bad habits, lose weight and learn to listen to your body.
- Method Shichko – involves the use of autosuggestion during the period of falling asleep and truthful information. Due to the written units, which the patient does before going to sleep in his personal diary, can be made to restore the work of any internal organ, including the lost tooth. The main thing – the systematic impact on the subconscious.
Among the new developments are also highlighted two more:
- The use of ultrasound, when using it to stimulate the gums and alveolar process to build up hard tissue. Due to this kind of massage can make the cells to function in the desired direction.
- Laser correction – in addition to painless operations on healing various organs, it is possible to stimulate the desired appearance of the cells and their growth. Thus, there is complete regeneration of tissues and restoring the lost tooth.
What are the side effects?
While all laboratory experiments were not included in the daily practice of dentists, as they have many flaws, side effects, and sometimes unexpected results. The most important parts, so it should work, are such dubious points:
- It is difficult to control the growth rate of the unit and its elements. It happens so that the dentine is formed much faster than the neuro-vascular bundle of the pulp.
- Perhaps the emergence of pathological forms and structure of the crown that in the future will definitely affect the functionality of the tooth and oral health in General.
- Our body’s developed immune system are likely to react to the introduction of the cultured tooth germ or from stem cells as a foreign body. Therefore, the high risk of its rejection. And in order to reduce this effect you’ll have to take drugs that significantly reduce the level of immunity that can lead to diminished health for a long period.
Not the whole academic world adheres to such optimistic forecasts on the possibility of growing a full tooth in a patient’s mouth. Many of them skeptical, even to the successful development and effective experiments. They claim that if certain conditions were able to increase the mouse some individuals, it does not mean that the same thing happens with a person.
No one can predict, how to behave like stem cells in the gum form if they need a tooth at a desired location, and even correct form. It is impossible to predict how it will react to the body of a single person to the implantation of such cells or a grown one. Even the experiments with the transplantation of teeth from one jaw to the other in humans have not yielded the desired result, showing a very low percentage of survival.
The most questionable issue is how to influence structure and form of the tooth, which requires to grow? Because stem cells don’t know that we need the cutter, the molar or canine. What will grow and whether it will happen?
Video: new teeth can still grow?
When is the procedure?
Those scientists that are still encouraged by the results of the experiments promise a speedy solution to the problem. So, Japanese developers think that you have progressed far enough in their technology, and were only created to differentiate the beginnings to accurately calculate what the alveolar ridge will increase the right one.
They promise that by 2030 will be able to provide comprehensive and effective results for growing teeth from stem cells and to extend his method to the masses. Their development needs to completely replace modern prosthetics and implants.
To predict the cost of such method of restoring the smile is difficult, because it is never carried out. But doctors want about the final amount based on individual procedures required for this.
So, the cost of extraction of stem cells is in the region of 1000 euros. If we add to this the necessary injection of additional materials and other procedures, it is possible to evaluate the whole process of growing the tooth in humans in 3000 euros, which is much more expensive implantation.
When you see this method of restoring the dentition, use them only those who are financially secure. Most of the population it will not be available. While some clinics offers an experimental procedure for growing units, but the patient should not only pay 3000 euros for it, but to sign the consent that is ready to unexpected results.