Gum recession: pictures, causes, treatment

Gingival recession is the denudation of the necks and roots of teeth, due to the reduction of soft tissue volume. This article presents the causes, treatments, and pictures of the disease.

Gum recession is a very insidious disease of the oral cavity, can ruin the aesthetic of the smile and lead to the destruction of the teeth.


The disease develops gradually and initially may involve only one tooth and have a local character, or maybe several or the entire dentition.

The recession is much more common on the mandible than on the upper and leads to a gradual loosening of the teeth and the formation of pus sacs in the gums. There are several reasons why this pathology occurs.

The etiology of the disease:

  • Tartar quite often leads to a shift of the epithelium, exposing the roots, as a rule, this is due to certain anatomical features, and the insufficient width of the gums;
  • improper oral hygiene leads to gingivitis and the formation of Tartar, which, in turn, provoke a recession;
  • the disease develops owing to injury of the gums that often occurs when using a very hard toothbrush;
  • physiological aging, in which atrophy of the epithelium, thinning of the gums and degradation of tissues;
  • wearing dentures, braces;
  • periodontitis – a disease that develops due to insufficient load on the teeth, by eating too soft food. As a result of this power is the stagnation of blood and create a favorable environment for development of pathogenic organisms;
  • anatomical feature of the maxillofacial apparatus. Most often this disease affect canines if too close to the surface;
  • incorrect use of arsenic in the treatment. Incorrect setting of drugs and its contact healthy gums may trigger a recession.
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Since 1968, the gingival recession was classified in 4 types: wide-deep, wide-small, small, small, narrow, deep. However, in 1985, this classification was expanded by Miller, which is still used in modern dentistry. It includes:

  1. Grade 1 small – broad and narrow-small. The recession does not go beyond the gingival tissues. The patient is not marked the loss of even a small part of the bone or the gums. At this stage of the disease possible complete closure of the recession.
  2. Class 2 – broad-narrow and deep-a deep recession that extends beyond the gingival tissue. Bone loss or gum is not marked. The possible complete closure of the recession.
  3. Class 3 – developing recession the first and second class with attendant loss interproximally bone, the gums is also in the interdental spaces apollinee cement-enamel junction, but coronariae the gingival margin. Complete closure is impossible.
  4. Class 4 – the loss of bone and soft tissues, eventually one or both interdental papilla are at the level of the gums. Complete closure of the root of the tooth impossible.

Also stands out the classification, which includes 3 types of lesions:

  1. Traumatic.
  2. Symptomatic.
  3. Physiological.

The disease are distinguished depending on severity into mild, moderate and severe.


How bright clinical picture depends on the extent of damage and the type of recession but regardless of the stage of the disease, the main characteristic symptom is bleeding gums.

Traumatic recession is accompanied by the following manifestations:

  • the disease develops more frequently in younger age;
  • a small value of the lesion, as a rule, the gums are shifted by not more than 3 mm.;
  • there is increased sensitivity of teeth and gums;
  • inflammation is absent or minimal;
  • the disease most often affects canines, incisors and premolars.
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Symptomatic is accompanied by such symptoms:

  • there is increased bleeding;
  • present inflammation;
  • color soft tissues are either too bright or pale, significantly different from healthy;
  • there is Tartar;
  • possible tooth mobility;
  • the disease can affect all of the gums.

The characteristic physiological manifestations of the recession:

  • all affected tissue of the gums;
  • the disease develops in people after age 60;
  • no mobility of the teeth;
  • roots are naked;
  • there are wedge-shaped defects.

Recession of the gums and its treatment

Gum recession can be treated either surgically or by using enamel matrix. Conservative treatment or therapy with the use of folk remedies at home is impossible.

Currently, there are several ways of carrying out operation and Troubleshooting of the recession:

  • if there are enough unaffected soft tissue, then use the lateral flap, i.e. when a piece of tissue transplanted to the site of recession. The method is pretty new, but already very popular, but despite this, such plastic has a limitation: the recession must affect small areas. There is a risk of developing the disease at the place where they took the flap;
  • the use of a palatal flap. This operation eliminates the recession on the tooth donor, but has aesthetic shortcomings, as the place where was held the closing of the root will be different in color from the adjacent tissues of the gums. After conducting the operation the restore process takes quite a long time;
  • the use of non-resorbable membranes (plates) which can increase the contact area between the surfaces of the gums and trigger the process of tissue regeneration. There is a risk that the material will tear the fabric and draw out any infection in the wound. Membrane not catch on and later removed. This way you can recover about 70% of the fabric. The method is currently in development.
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The use of enamel matrix due to the fact that it is composed of protein amelogenin, which has regenerating properties. There is a perception that it triggers the formation of gums. The use of a new method of treatment is able to stop a recession and to restore periodontal tissues.

The cost of the operation is dependent on the extent of disease and extent of lesions, as a rule, the amount varies from 3000 to 20000 roubles.


Treatment of recession is possible only by surgery, but to prevent the disease independently you need to follow some rules:

  • give up bad habits, especially Smoking cigarettes;
  • to observe the rules of oral hygiene;
  • doing professional cleaning of Tartar;
  • to visit the dentist;
  • try to avoid injuries to the gums;
  • to choose the right stiffness of the toothbrush;
  • mandatory to visit the dentist during pregnancy;
  • bite correction.

If you suspect a disease, it is recommended to go to the dentist, since in the early stages of the disease much easier to treat.

Video: gum recession — causes and consequences.