How many channels in the tooth: root canal of teeth
The root canal system in a tooth is a kind of tunnel, through which pass the nutrients and nerve endings. Filled space channels polovoy tissue, which consists of a complex of collagen with lymphatic and blood vessels, nervous fibers. With the development of caries lesion with lesions of the hard tissues until the pulp chamber, creates conditions for rapid spread of infection through the channel system. Treatment strategy of the dentist based on clinical data and the number of channels in the tooth.
In the process of ontogenesis was already in the prenatal period there is a bookmark primary and permanent teeth. During fetal development, in parallel with the General growth, body mass increase and complication of the structure of organs and systems, improving them, there is a mineralization of dairy. Permanent group begins to undergo a process of increasing mineral component in the composition in the first month of life.
Milk teeth or, as they are called temporary (limited lifespan), represented by incisors (Central, lateral), canine, first molar and second. Total 5 on each side of the center line on the upper and lower jaw. Central line, aka the «Central axis» that passes through the tip of the nose, between the Central incisors, to the top of the chin. On the upper and lower jaw should be OK for 3 years with 10 teeth.
In the teeth of the permanent group there are peculiarities in the anatomical shape and quantity. This is due to the fact that the growth process occurs in parallel with small changes in the skull also and jaw development. Dental arch increases in size, the lower jaw moves down and forward. Presented to the standing group of teeth (Central, lateral), a canine, a premolar (small root: 2 units), molar (large root: 3 units). Total for 8 each side of the center line. Normal 28 teeth, except for the last «wise» should be fully cut to 15 years. The remaining eight (the last big molars) erupt after 18 years.
For the temporary group that for a constant characterized by the presence of some similarities in anatomical structure. Tooth body consists of outer and inner parts. The outer visible when we smile or when inspection of the oral cavity on their own in the mirror or when the dentist examines in a chair at the reception. The inner part is immersed in the bone and is firmly fixed due to the ligaments of the periodontium.
If you look at the isolated from the oral cavity tooth, you can see that it consists of three parts:
The crown is visible by external examination. Roots in normal submerged into the jawbone. The neck occupies an intermediate position and basically it is the attachment of periodontal ligaments. Inside the neck is (submerged in the bone) are covered with cement and that it is the attachment of ligaments.
The internal structure
The dental organ is able to perform its function due to characteristics of the tissues present in its composition. Outside of this organ to cover the enamel, the strong solid fabric. Enamel thickness is variable depending on the group of teeth and the discovery of a body in the maxillary arch. After the enamel is followed by the dentin. This tissue occupies a large area of hard tooth structures. Through the dentine are the nerve fibers, the number of which increases towards the border with polovoy camera.
Inside the hollow tooth. If about to divide the tooth, it is possible to identify that the root canal starts from the pulp chamber, which in a large volume within the crown. The place of narrowing of the pulp chamber into the canal called the mouth. The number of channels in a single root of the tooth may be different. It is also important to note that different groups of teeth there are peculiarities in the structure of the internal part of the tooth.
Milk teeth the layer of enamel is thinner and less mineralized than permanent. This may explain the rapid spread of caries deep into the tooth. Dentin temporary loose and also more organic matrix. The cavity root canal wide, apical hole (or the tip of the tooth) located at the exit of the root canal in the periodontal region. Stage of forming the top ends only after three years from the time of eruption. However, when trauma, injury polovoy tissue inflammation with infection or other factor, completion of this phase does not occur. To close the tip should be administered calcium-containing substance, which is required for this stage of mineralization.
The system of branching
Why it is important to know how many channels in the tooth? Of course, a simple layman, this question is not essential, however, for the dentist, directly involved in treating the problem of teeth with complicated caries (pulpitis, periodontitis), knowledge of the anatomical structure is very important. Even if the infectious process only partially affected nerve canals, for example, in the region of the upper third, located near the mouth, treatment should be carried out efficiently and preferably the entire system. Very rarely and only on the testimony allowed the Commission of amputation: the removal of the pulp from the chamber and partially in the region of the orifices, with the imposition of medical and insulating gaskets on the channel itself.
In deciduous teeth is represented by the following system:
- Incisors: the Central and lateral have one channel;
- Fang: one long and wide channel;
- The first and second molar: usually two.
For the standing group:
- Incisors: the Central and side on channel 1 (2 can be lower);
- Fang: 1;
- First premolar: 2 upstairs, 1 downstairs;
- Second premolar: 1 for each jaw;
- Third molar: mainly 3, but the upper jaw can be 4 or more.
Provides information on the number of channels can be considered average because this indicator is collected from the total number of previously surveyed in dentistry people. There are individual features of the structure as the teeth on the external structure, and internal. The output channels of the tooth root is through the apical hole. To the doctor was easier to rely on what number of channels represented in the tooth, are other methods of diagnostic determination.
On reception at the doctor
Dentist the endodontist directly treats the canals located in the root. Restoration part, namely, the restoration of the crown is performed by a therapist, or a specialized dentist for filling visible when smiling part of the tooth.
In order to determine the location of the mouths dentist uses a variety of techniques. At the initial stage, when a significant destruction of the tooth crown, the specialist also conducts x-ray examination of tissue. On sighting the contact radiograph shows the topography of the location of the channels. Use tabular method not always is informative and accurate, since there are changes in the structure of the channel is already inside the cavity of the root. According to the classification of Vertucci may be split and rastroennyh channels, the system may merge into a single point in the region of apical hole.
To facilitate the identification of channels, and the doctor uses in the process of creating access a special liquid. After diagnosis, treatment begins. Therapy the patient’s tooth is the dissection, the opening of the cavity, amputation of the crown pulp, expansion of the cavity. Then carefully conducted antiseptic (3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, 2% solution of chlorhexidine bigluconate), drying. Put on some time the liquid to expand and identify the estuaries on the basis of salts of EDTA (20%).
In the treatment process are applied by hand, machine endodontic instruments with a joint or alternating use of chemicals that dissolve smear layer of dentin from the inside, the remains of polovoy tissue (3-5% sodium hypochlorite solution). To rely only on the anatomical structure of the canal system, based on data from tables, x-ray studies, should not be. Often there are additional micro canals that depart from the main channels and go in the direction dentinogenesis border or apex. Channels are not always available for processing. May include areas of contraction, expansion, curvature.
After the root canals of the teeth were carefully processed, proceed to the drying and filling. To fill the space of channels is possible by using a paste of gutta-percha. Gutta percha, a special material that melts when heated and forms a viscous mass filling the microcavity of the tooth. Adequate sealing will prevent the risk of re-infection.
Why is it important to understand about the system of branching in the tooth
Simple layman it seems that the pain in the depth of the tooth may not bother you. However, in violation of oral hygiene, increased consumption of fast utilizable carbohydrates, the absence of routine medical examination and rehabilitation of the oral cavity with a specialist, can lead to the development of caries. Tooth decay — a process that affects the hard tissues of teeth (enamel, dentin). With deep penetration of infection of dentine follows the system of microtubules in the tooth cavity, namely polovoy the camera. There is a pulpitis.
Pulpitis is characterized by a rapid inflammatory edema, rupture of the neurovascular bundle. If untreated, the process quickly passes through the system of canals in the apical region. Thereby causing periodontitis. Each of the diseases of hard tooth tissues is not complicated (caries) and complicated (pulpitis, periodontitis) has its own peculiarities in the symptomatology, clinical picture and, accordingly, treatment. Tactics of healing, clarifies the specialist in each case individually. If after sealing the pain persists, you must inform your doctor. This is important because it can be done errors in the process of diagnosis, treatment or do not take into account the patient’s condition.