Inflammation of the oral mucosa: causes, than to treat

Stomatitis — inflammation of oral mucosa pathological process that develops on the inner surfaces of the oral cavity in the presence of certain etiological factors. The disease occurs at any age, but children are more susceptible due to the development of the jaw apparatus and the thrust to trial «to the tooth» foreign objects. Treatment of inflammation of the oral cavity does a doctor or dentist, if the patient is in childhood, Pediatr.

Stomatitis is considered to be only superficial pathological process. Necrotic pathology that affects the deeper layers of the tissues of the mouth, gums and jaw bone for stomatitis is not true. In this case we are talking about gingivitis, subperiosteal abscess, phlegmon of the soft tissues. Stomatitis can be an independent disease or can be secondary in nature, being one of the symptoms of such internal diseases as:

  1. the weakening of the immune system;
  2. herpes infection;
  3. fungal infection;
  4. the source of infection from which pathogenic microflora blood is carried around the body

Primary inflammation in the mouth is usually amenable to local treatment. Secondary stomatitis require comprehensive therapy, mainly directed at eliminating the underlying disease.

Causes of stomatitis

The primary inflammation of the oral mucosa is the penetration of an infectious agent in the «gate» of the infection. The role of the agent can play:

  • fungi;
  • viruses;
  • bacteria.

Non-infectious causes of stomatitis are there. We are talking about the defeat of chemical or physical factors (an acid burn, thermal burn). In this case, however traumatic the agent only creates the entrance gate, disrupting the integrity of the mucous membranes. As a rule, in the first minutes after injury in the hearth it is possible to identify some species of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria.

Damage to the internal surfaces of the mouth is often mechanical. The reasons for this phenomenon lie in the presence of sharp pieces of the tooth trying to bite the children of foreign solid objects, mismatched dental restorations. In microtrauma, thus obtained, are bacteria. Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. In secondary stomatitis the presence of the entrance gate of infection is optional. Microflora is filled with blood from the primary infectious focus.

Predisposing factors


Normal getting a small amount of bacterial flora in the wound does not lead to inflammation. Trigger defense mechanisms that kill the pathogen. In order to keep the process going any significant time, the degree of intensity of defensive reactions must be reduced. This occurs in the following pathological conditions:

  1. stress;
  2. lack of sleep;
  3. chronic intoxication (Smoking, alcohol, work in hazardous industries);
  4. recent infectious disease;
  5. HIV;
  6. the immune suppressants;
  7. hypovitaminosis;
  8. infestation of intestinal parasites;
  9. hormonal imbalances;
  10. other causes of immunosuppressive States.
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Inflammation of the oral cavity may have an autoimmune origin. The patient’s body produces antibodies against its own tissues, destroying them.

Symptoms and diagnosis

Symptoms of inflammation of the mucous inner lining of the mouth is divided into General and local signs. The local symptoms include:

  • the appearance of the mouth small ulcers, covered with white bloom, and bordered with areas of hyperemia;
  • swelling of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity;
  • bleeding gums;
  • soreness of the mucous membranes at the touch;
  • bad breath;
  • burning sensation;
  • increased salivation.

As a rule, when trying to separate the white patches are the patient experiences a sharp pain. The exposed surface of the ulcer is bleeding at the capillary type. The lesions often located on the cheeks, inner lips, soft palate. Stomatitis viral nature, manifested in the form of small vesicles with serous content, which is covered with mucous. Celebrated its swelling and soreness.
Common symptoms develops in severe disease and high incidence of inflammation. Symptoms that occur at the same time, is similar for both adult and child, mostly due to intoxication. To common symptoms of stomatitis include:

  1. the increase in body temperature of the patient sometimes up to 39°C;
  2. pain in the muscles and joints;
  3. weakness, fatigue, tearfulness;
  4. headache;
  5. reduction or complete loss of efficiency;
  6. aches throughout the body;
  7. flying pain in the bones.

Toxicity with stomatitis is caused not only by the release into the blood of waste products of the bacteria, but also the collapse of the necrotic tissue. While people with chronic kidney disease, accompanied by a decrease in their secretory ability, obscheintoksikatsionnogo syndrome is pronounced most clearly.

On the background of intoxication and pain during swallowing, the patient may refuse to eat. An adult in such cases it is necessary to give liquid products. In the case of infants you may need to transition to parenteral (intravenous) nutrition or the formulation of a nasogastric tube for introducing food directly into the stomach.

Treatment

Inflammatory process of oral cavity treatment can be General and local.

Local treatment

Necrotic inflammation of the mouth requires careful treatment of foci of disease. Sores are washed with a solution of baking soda. For the treatment can also be used for sterile infusion solutions sodium bicarbonate is sold in glass bottles of 200 ml. Contact with ulcers should produce a sterile or clinically clean gauze pad. It is worth noting that cotton for the treatment of ulceration do not use. Microscopic lint may remain in the wound, which will lead to complication process.

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After treatment and discharge white patches ulcers treated with antiseptic solutions. This can be used Miramistin, chlorhexidine, octenisept, a weak solution of potassium permanganate. You can apply some recipes of traditional medicine (decoction of chamomile). Such processing leads to the fact that the inflammatory process subsides, giving way to regeneration.

After antiseptic treatment of ulcers treated by means of accelerating restoration. As the regenerating of the drug can be solkoseril, sea buckthorn oil. In severe pain can be prescribed ointments with anesthetics (lidocaine, kamistad). The viral nature of the disease is the indication for prescription of the patient antiviral drugs (acyclovir).

Local treatment of stomatitis include sanitation of foci of chronic infection in the mouth. Bad teeth sealed, destroyed, deleted or reinstated. If this is not done, the mucosa will become inflamed again and again.

General treatment

Total therapy is used in severe stomatitis. Patients are assigned to such groups of medications as:

  • antibiotics (Amoxiclav, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin);
  • antiviral (acyclovir, zovirax);
  • vitamins (pills, injection monovalency);
  • means, improves blood circulation (pentoxifylline, trental);
  • Immunostimulants (levamisole).

In addition to the above, General therapy should be directed at correcting the underlying disease. Depending on the diagnosis, patients are administered immunomodulators, chemotherapeutic agents, antihistamines, and so on. The question of how to treat the underlying pathology individually.

The diet for stomatitis

With stomatitis requires compliance with a certain diet. Products, edible, should not cause irritation and aggravate the disease.

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Not recommended there are the following types of products:

  1. citrus;
  2. fried foods;
  3. spicy food;
  4. excessively salty foods;
  5. the sour components;
  6. crackers; biscuits, wafers, chips;
  7. hot meals;
  8. alcohol.

Table of the patient should consist of:

  1. mucous soups;
  2. dairy dishes;
  3. chilled tea, decoctions of medicinal plants;
  4. cottage cheese, yogurt;
  5. kas soft cereals;
  6. vegetable juices.

Products before consumption it is recommended to grind until smooth using a blender. After eating rinse the mouth with decoction of herbs or antiseptic. The absence of such treatment leads to the preservation of food particles between the teeth and the active multiplication of bacteria in the oral cavity. Sparing diet should be maintained until complete healing of the ulcerations.

In an alternative embodiment of the power with stomatitis (especially in children) may apply a specialized formula (nutrison, nutridrink).

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Such compounds have a certain specialization, being designed for patients with diabetes, anorexia, etc. With the intention of feeding of a patient suffering from stomatitis, you should choose neutral compounds, the content as closely as possible to natural food.

Prevention of stomatitis

Primary prevention of stomatitis is quite simple and should be performed by every health-conscious person. Inflammation of the mouth usually develops when poor personal hygiene. Therefore, the first and most important rule prevent reporting of the disease is regular, twice a day, brushing your teeth with a soft toothbrush. The dentists do not recommend the use of pasta, which includes sodium lauryl sulfate.

Do not forget that the causes of disease often lie in the lack of vitamins. Regularly, in spring and autumn, to undergo a prophylactic course of vitamin therapy, to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, not irritant. When existing vitamin deficiency should consult a doctor for appropriate treatment.

It is necessary to monitor the health of the oral cavity, to prevent the formation of micro traumas in a timely manner to treat the patients teeth, if they are present in the mouth. You should also pay attention to other somatic diseases that can cause stomatitis. With the aim of timely detection and treatment of lesions of pathology is recommended once a year, and after 40-45 years 2 times a year undergo preventive examination.

Forecast

The prognosis for stomatitis primary character is favorable. Recovery occurs on average 2-3 weeks after the onset of the disease. If the mucous membrane is inflamed for a longer period, the patient is required to pass a comprehensive examination for the presence of precipitating stomatitis diseases. Predictions in secondary form of inflammation depends on the primary diagnosis and forecasts on it.