Leukoplakia of the oral cavity: symptoms, treatment, photos

Thickening and subsequent keratinization of the mucous membranes of the body has the risk of transition to cancer. What is leukoplakia of the oral cavity, what are the symptoms and treatment of, illness and everything you need to know about it.

This disease is chronic. The centers of proliferation are localized on the red border of the lips, mucous membranes of the mouth. The disease can involve the mucous membranes of the nose, urogenital tract, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system. Often the diagnosis assigned to people of middle and older ages. The main danger lies in the risk of state transition in Oncology.


Main stimuli that leads to leukoplakia – local. Why is there disease?

  • The mucosa of the oral cavity is damaged by mechanical impact. For example, a scratched sharp jagged edges of the tooth, inopportune orthopedic prosthesis, metal products, fillings with rough edges. Fabrics can be damaged your teeth at the malocclusion, incorrect the natural arrangement of one or more teeth.
  • On the mucosa for extended periods of time exposed to chemical and thermal factors.
  • When Smoking the negative impact of allocated derivative of tar, ammonia, phenol, the nicotine. Tissue lips prizhivayutsya and injured by cigarettes. Trigger leukoplakia alcohol consumption, chewing of tobacco, betel, use of illegal drugs.
  • Adversely affected by extremes of temperature when eating, the alternation of cold food hot (why the tooth reacts to hot and cold?). Harmful in this case spicy foods, spicy, sour.
  • Affected by changes of temperature while outdoors.
  • As a rule, the patient with leukoplakia contains a record about work with harmful conditions. These include work with compounds of benzene, phenol, benzene, aniline dyes, lacquers, resins.
  • Installed metal fillings or crowns create galvanism, he, in turn, injures the tissue.
  • Local immunity of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity suffers from certain conditions. This: hormonal changes, metabolism, endocrine pathology, vitamin a deficiency, hypovitaminosis, anemia, changes due to stress, disorders of the digestive tract, hereditary characteristics, a side effect of certain medications, changes in inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity – gingivitis, stomatitis, HIV infection.

Dangerous situation in which there is just a few reasons for the development of the disease.


The first signs are mild, unpleasant sensations do not cause, often unnoticed. It all starts with the formation of inflammation. Touches the inner surface of the cheeks, the lower lip (vermillion border), the lip corners, the lower surface of the tongue, alveoli. If you smoke touched the sky.

The epithelium in the area of inflammation becomes cloudy, the lesions appear gray, white-gray color. The top layer of these lesions rogowiec. Areas of leukoplakia are developing both single and multiple, resembling a plaque. When you try to remove plaque disinfectant wipe remain unchanged. Without treatment flat areas move into the verrucous form, then erosive.

Apart distinguish leukoplakia smokers. At the same time can develop several forms of the disease threatening to degenerate into something malignant.

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Pathology has the following types:

  1. Flat or simple.
  2. Verrucous.
  3. Erosive.
  4. Soft.
  5. Tappeiner.

Flat or simple

Onset of the disease for all forms. Expressed discomfort with this form, the patient does not feel.

  • Sometimes there is a feeling of tightness in the lesion, accompanied by slight itching.
  • If the lesions affect the fabric of a language can change sensation of taste in the direction of weakening.
  • Reveals a flat shape, usually by accident, on examination by a dentist about other complaints, or independently, if the patient is worried about changes in the mucosa.
  • Areas affected by the disease, reminiscent of plaques with a diameter up to 4 cm When treated with iodine, the color does not change. To the touch slightly swollen plaques are not sealed, and rough, painless (hyperkeratosis) dry. Resemble a burn. Signs of inflammation in this form are not expressed.
  • Depending on the intensity of keratinization of spots pale-grey, transparent grey or pronounced white color.
  • Localization and contours areas of the lesions vary in different people. A common feature is their finding about the same level with the surrounding tissues. In addition, they are able to affect the entire mucosa of the patient’s life without growth, without causing any discomfort.

During the period favorable for leukoplakia conditions (mechanical impacts, low immunity, etc.) accelerated the process of keratinization of the oral mucosa, proliferate and compacted foci of hyperkeratosis. Disease transformirovalsya in verrucous form.


  • The development of this form is preceded by one or several reasons – mechanical damage, heat, etc.
  • The main sign that a simple form passed into verrucous is pronounced hyperkeratosis. The top layer of the plaques, located on the mucous membrane, visibly thickens and increases. The lesions now towering over other fabrics, colors stand out markedly compared to the nearby tissues.
  • Seal clearly chuvstvuetsa to the touch.
  • For the patient form does not go unnoticed. Complaints are submitted to the local feeling of tightness, roughness, pain when eating.

Verrucous leukoplakia is divided into types:

  1. Plaque — the lesions are similar in appearance to calluses. Clear plaques protrude above the surface of the tissue. Their color is milky white, straw-yellow, bluish-white.
  2. Warty lesions similar outwardly, respectively, on the warts. Education verrucous leukoplakia dense, movable, nodular, grayish-white color. Painless to the touch. Reach a height of 2-3 mm. It is this form, warty, capable with high probability to degenerate into malignant pathology.

Complicated by verrucous, like a simple form that goes into erosive leukoplakia.


Factors influencing the occurrence of complications, needs a long time to act on the lesions, as a rule, all the same conditions, chemical exposure, heat, galvanism, etc.

  • erosive form of the disease causes the patient pain, which intensified under the influence of adverse factors;
  • this form is difficult to treatment;
  • high risk of recurrence;
  • outwardly, this stage of the hyperkeratosis reminiscent of cracks, sores, patches of erosion on off-white background;
  • lesions affecting tissue of the vermilion border, easily increase in size, as open to adverse influence of environment. Heal areas for a long time, deliver tangible pain to their owner.
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Leukoplakia Of Tappeiner

  • When the lesions are localized in the region of the hard palate, sometimes on the soft palate, at least on a marginal area of the gums (region).
  • The mucous membrane of these zones has a characteristic grayish color, becomes folded.
  • Pathology clog the ducts of the salivary glands. Because of this, they expand, they form similarity of cyst-like nodules red. In areas of leukoplakia such nodules appear as red dots.
  • Leukoplakia of Tappeiner often combined with other varieties of one disease.
  • Because the main factor of the occurrence of this form of hyperkeratosis – the nicotine and toxins, when quitting, the process becomes reversible.


Classification of types and forms of disease would be incomplete without the mention of soft leukoplakia. The symptoms of this species are the alarming signal about the development of cancer mucous membranes of the oral cavity benign properties. The characteristics of this variety:

  1. It is an independent disease.
  2. The factors that provoke the same meaning in other forms. Also, the disease develops on the background of already existing stages.
  3. Lesions of the mucous tissues of leukoplakia with mild swelling, pale grey, their outlines fuzzy. Inflammation.
  4. All other forms that is characterized in that the modified disease cells are shed. Otherwise, the process is called desquamation. When you try to remove the plaque at the place of its location are found from erosion and cracks.
  5. Line of closing the teeth, the edges of the lips, the inner side of the cheeks, rarely the gums and tongue – the typical places of distribution of this form.
  6. This disease is more often diagnosed in children and individuals not older than 30 years.
  7. As a rule, diagnosis is exposed during the rehabilitation of the oral cavity or during prophylactic examinations. Own patients advice treated less.
  8. Patient complaints in mild leukoplakia: mucosa roughness, flaking, the feeling of the seal.
  9. When kusiani tissue affected by a disease process worse.

The etiology of the disease is inaccurate. Usually there are such factors provoking the disease, as the frequent mechanical damage to the mucosa of patients with neurological pathologies, hormonal changes in the body during the period of puberty and menopause.

Video: disease of the oral mucosa — leukoplakia.


As a rule, to establish the diagnosis of «leukoplakia of the mouth» is not difficult for a dentist at the first visual inspection and palpation. For accurate diagnosis. It includes the following measures:

  1. Fence Cytology (cell analysis).
  2. Histological examination of affected tissue using a biopsy procedure.
  3. Analysis of venous blood for Wasserman.
  4. Additional research if necessary.
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It is important to distinguish leukoplakia from other diseases. To do this, hold the differential diagnosis of certain diseases.

  • Hyperplastic candidosis of the oral cavity chronic form occurs with similar symptoms. However, when it is detachable from the affected areas can be removed. After recovery of the treated fabrics are opacities in contrast to hyperkeratosis.
  • Lichen planus, from which the foci of leukoplakia characterized by the absence of inflammation, the property is not spread on the skin.
  • Lupus erythematosus — it is leaking from the pockets of redness, atrophy of tissues, leukoplakia symptoms are not typical.
  • Secondary syphilis — the lesions it lesions have vesicles, white patches in this disease is easily removed, where the lesions observed infiltration. For definitive diagnosis, perform a blood test.
  • Limited premalignant hyperkeratosis is a lesions it lesions covered with scales, the center sinks. The tissue analysis (histology) establish a precise diagnosis.
  • Bowen’s disease — areas of tissue affected by the disease — pasty, hyperemic, with the tinge which can be removed. Detachable under – the rough lesions with intense red colour.

Treatment of leukoplakia of the oral cavity

Depending on the shape and speed of development of a pathology treatment. Flat leukoplakia will disappear if you cancel the factors provoking it. The elimination of such factors is important in any form. Further, for all forms are:

  • the reorganization of the mouth;
  • treatment with vitamins C, e, A, which is taken orally, in the form of injections and local compresses;
  • replacement of amalgam fillings;
  • treatment of all diseases of the teeth, gums;
  • purpose sunscreen lip products;
  • treatment of opportunistic diseases;
  • therapy regenerating means with the erosive form;
  • surgical excision in the absence of positive dynamics (electrocoagulation, cryosurgery);
  • physiotherapy;
  • treatment of folk remedies — rinse with warm decoction of Hypericum, chamomile, Linden, calendula, green tea. Effective application of oil of sea-buckthorn, Kalanchoe.
  • prevention at home – no Smoking and ingestion of toxic substances, strengthen the immune system, the installation of high-quality implants and regular oral hygiene.
  • the supervision of a physician.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

Has code in digital notation «13.2» decoding «Leukoplakia and other changes in the epithelium of the oral cavity».

► To what doctor to address?

As a rule, diagnosis and treatment of this illness do dentists.


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