Malocclusion in the child: causes, photos, how to fix
Malocclusion of the child – the most common problem in all countries. Consider its causes, show photos and make a short review of ways to correct this anomaly and when best to start treatment.
After all, to go with unaesthetic dentition unpleasant, and in adulthood, and can affect personal relationships, promotion, etc. But most importantly – the consequences for overall health, which develop gradually and lead to severe diseases of internal organs.
How is the bite?
Many parents do not attach importance to children’s teeth when it is noticeable that they grow incorrectly, crooked, not in the right place. It seems that all the time and then adjusts itself. The earlier you show the child the dentist, the faster you will be able to influence the creation of correct and beautiful smiles of your baby.
Doctors say such basic stages of formation of malocclusion in children:
- In infants from birth to six months, yet not erupt the teeth and bite as such is not formed, though some of the growth of the jaws laid.
- Already from 6 months to three years there is first the formation of the interim provisions of the jaw, milk teeth appear.
- In 3 years we can talk about the completion of this phase, the eruption of all children’s units and in this position they will remain for up to 6 years.
- In the period from 6 to 12 years there is a gradual replacement of children’s permanent teeth.
- And from 12 to 15 years can speak of the final formation of occlusion, which subsequently influence will be much harder.
No wonder the experts insist to do the correction of bite in children. Because it is now easier rebuilds tissue and is able to take the desired shape, and the teeth can take its rightful place.
The causes of malfunctioning of the bite in children
What influences its formation and why many people have a similar anomaly? Everyone has a number of factors which are contributing to the problem, but most often they boil down to this:
- Genetic predisposition, when from generation to generation jaw of the child initially formed in the wrong way, even when compliance with dental recommendations.
- Baby harmful habits such as thumb sucking or prolonged fascination with the pacifier.
- If the milk teeth are located very close to each other, then for regular units, which take up more space will be free space.
- If you frequently eat soft mashed food and the lack of solid products of jaw muscles remain underdeveloped.
- Diseases of ENT-organs, the presence of adenoids and other causes that lead to difficulties breathing. The child often keeps his mouth open.
- Even disorders of the spine and posture, propping up his chin on one hand can lead to improper formation of the bite.
- Some common diseases such as diabetes or problems of the nervous system contribute to the appearance of dental defects.
- Pathology during the pregnancy of the mother, insufficient intake of the necessary vitamins and minerals, viral infections during this period, anemia and other difficulties affect the General condition of the unborn child and dental health in particular.
- Various injuries, premature removal or loss of milk units, abundant cavities, etc.
Many of them are preventable or at least to reduce the negative impact that the power of parents. But for this you need to learn about how to develop the jaw of a child to grow teeth and to form the bite, and what to do if a defect is found.
In an extreme case, it is sufficient periodically to show the baby to a specialist in order to determine whether there is any deviation and time to correct them.
For competent selection of the most effective method of treatment is required to begin to establish a kind of anomaly, which is observed for a particular child. They are as follows:
- Open – when some individual units on the two jaws are not closed completely in the closed state. Often a defect occurs in the front due to prolonged sucking of the thumb or a pacifier, but sometimes on the side. Also contribute to the emergence of such problems may rickets. For correction of this anomaly should remove the original cause, and only then taken for selection of orthodontic appliances. The most commonly used special sling with rubber or traction devices in the form of an expansion plate on springs.
- Anterior – in which the lower jaw is pushed forward too much. This occurs, if it is more developed than upper, what should not be. This violation is easy to see, as it is seen on the face, the chin protrudes, the profile would be concave. Also the child will complain of frequent headaches and crunch in the joints.
- Distal – unlike the previous version, in more developed upper jaw, which almost completely overlaps the bottom. Eliminated this problem and Burr trainer, is able to stimulate the work of the jaw apparatus.
- Cross – misalignment of teeth occurs in a horizontal plane. When one of the jaws is more shifted to the right or to the left or there is excessive narrowing some of them. The reasons for this are more likely to be genetic factors, problems of growth and change of milk teeth or frequent infections of the ear.
- Deep – there is particularly strong overlap between the jaws when the upper is almost completely hidden under the bottom. This takes the excessive load on the protruding unit, there are speech defects, and it looks ugly from the side. Serious problems because of deep bite begin with the complexities of food processing and accidental injuries education.
- Diastema is longer refers not to the position of the jaw, and the individual units. So, between the teeth may be formed a gap up to 6 mm. Usually this problem is accompanied by low frenulum of the upper lip, dense bony partition between the incisors, early or late loss of deciduous teeth, abnormal position of some of them.
The difference between correct and incorrect bite
For comparison, let us describe the state of the ideal position of the jaws. Is this the bite orthognathic. Thus the top row overlaps the bottom by no more than one-third of the crown length. The opposite unit will close tightly in the closed position and is able to chew any food.
Also there should be no gaps and spaces between the individual teeth and there is overcrowding. Place on the arc all very good units. It is worth noting that this form of occlusion is considered to be perfect, in fact it is extremely rare. Rather, this position of the jaws serves as a model to aim for in the process of correction.
At what age to begin treatment?
Best to stick to the General recommendations of dentists and prevent any bad habits of the child, which can disrupt the correct position of the jaws. Nevertheless the show experienced a baby need in the following cases:
- The first eruption of dairy units when the child is 1 year or 2 when he had almost all the first teeth.
- The initial anomaly, the doctor may notice even before the 5 years, at the same time and affect the future development of occlusion. You can use various removable design or to do with the child special exercises, which will help with proper position of the teeth and jaw.
- You need to understand that the later you start treatment, the harder and longer it takes. So, after 14 years to affect the formation of connective tissue is much more difficult. And then, you may have to do surgery.
- For installation of braces is considered ideal age, when formed by permanent occlusion – 8-12 years. At the same time use trainers, mouth guards, and various activators.
The duration of treatment with orthodontic appliances can take anywhere from six months to two to three years. You should also count on the retention period when prescribed the wearing of special products that help to maintain and consolidate the result. But the earlier you start corrective actions, the faster it will end.
How to correct a child’s bite?
What to do to help the baby to gain a perfect smile? Depending on the shape and position of the jaws, a single unit, and other factors, the doctor selects the most appropriate to the needs of the child the correction system. It can be:
- The use of various designs removable – aligners to correct the bite, trainers, plate, sling, etc. it is important for the child to follow all the rules and didn’t take them more often than required by the treatment.
- Chemotherapy – special exercises to work the facial and jaw muscles. Very good correction of bite in children at a younger age. But parents need to devote enough energy, time and attention for action by the child. These exercises help the load on the muscles, the floor of the mouth, maintaining consistent tone and development of the jaw bones. That is what gives the preconditions for the future the proper growth of permanent teeth.
- Orthodontic treatment is often reduced to installing the braces. Children will find a metallic, ceramic or lingual options that particularly affects the price of treatment. It is noticed that teenagers are easier to tolerate the presence of a foreign object in your mouth and easier to sustain the adjustment process, it gives them less pain and discomfort than adult patients.
- Surgery – used in the most complex and advanced cases, when correcting a malocclusion in the normal way fails.
- A comprehensive approach involves a combination between several of the above options. For example, exercises and trainers or braces and surgery. The use of two or three systems of influence has a more rapid effect.
What happens if left untreated?
To understand the complexity and importance of the malocclusion, it is necessary to specify the consequences that will eventually manifest itself and cause a lot of trouble man:
- impaired General health since periodontal and gastrointestinal tract;
- due to the increased load on individual units there is a gradual denudation of the cervix, a bleeding of the gums and you can lose even a healthy tooth ahead of time;
- are increasingly starting to bother temporomandibular joint, which leads to headaches, clicks and crunch, difficulty in chewing;
- aesthetic disorders of facial contours directly indicate the position of each jaw, especially if it is pronounced.
Video: tips for malocclusion in children.
Affect the future condition of occlusion is possible even from the time when a woman bears a child. In this period it is advisable to be well fed, to avoid viral diseases, not to take harmful drugs and additionally drink vitamin-mineral complexes with a high content of calcium and fluorine.
After the birth of a child, it is important not to wean him prematurely from his chest, as it is a natural process of sucking breast milk leads to active development of the lower jaw. Initially, it looks underdeveloped and smaller top and only breastfeeding stimulates the growth.
Also ensure that the toddler is not keen on a dummy, sleeping on one side, and periodically change position, didn’t put in the time fist under his cheek, and so the Elimination of bad habits must become mom’s care at this stage.
When switching to adult food to the child should be regularly consumed solid foods (Apple, carrot), which also affects the formation of teeth and bone development. Observe the change of milk teeth to make it happen not before and not after a certain period of time. Time to show the child specialist to control the situation.
Separately should be said about the diseases of ENT-organs. If the kid keeps his mouth open or he often hurt the ears, it is a chance to go to the doctor, as such problems will lead to malocclusion.
In the form of preventive and curative measures dentists apply the following manipulation for younger children:
- specially designed exercises, assuming the proper load on the jaw muscles;
- sosotoyanie protruding tubercles on the chewing teeth in some anomalies.
- massage alveolar bone, frenulum of lips and tongue for the best for their development.
Only careful attention of parents to the health of the child will help him grow with the least amount of problems and prevent many unpleasant diseases and complications treated have had for a very long time.