Micrognathia of the mandible hypoplasia, hypoplasia
Micrognathia of the mandible is an anomaly of development characterized by improper formation. The occurrence of hypoplasia in many cases associated with the adverse effects of the various factors. The underdevelopment of the lower jaw is far more common than the underdeveloped upper jaw. This pathology can be of a General nature and one-sided (if underdevelopment is observed only on one side). A common form of the disease creates the effect of the protrusion of the upper area of the face. If the lower micrognathia has a one-way character, that there is a significant distortion of the shape of the face.
The causes of pathology
The lower jaw may be deformed in the first months after birth or at adult age. As a rule, the development of this pathology is influenced by some factors. The severity of symptoms usually depends on the age of the patient, so it is important to detect the disease at an early stage of development.
The most common cause of this pathology is the incorrect fetal development during the formation of maxillofacial system.
The main factors can cause this defect are:
- violation of the rules and the diet;
- genetic predisposition;
- viral and infectious diseases;
- the presence of harmful habits.
In childhood, in addition to congenital forms of micrognathia often diagnosed acquired form of the disease. It can be triggered by the following factors:
- early change of milk teeth at the root;
- disorders of the endocrine system;
- premature removal of deciduous teeth to adjust the bite;
- improper bone development front office;
- the presence of harmful habits;
- too frequent sucking nipples or finger;
- violation of the rules when feeding the baby (especially if breastfeeding is not possible).
The main causes that provoke the development of micrognathia in adulthood are:
- the lack of treatment of maxillofacial defects in children, as a result, the situation worsens with time;
- mechanical damage of the jaw or facial bone;
- increased tone of the occipital and cervical muscles;
- violation of swallowing and chewing functions;
- abnormal development of the circular musculature of the oral cavity;
- a failure in the endocrine system;
- the metabolic disorders;
- diabetes mellitus;
- diseases of the skeletal system.
In adulthood this disease there is a significant breach of the facial features of the person. When considering the profile, you notice a pronounced indents of the lower lip, which is stretched. A set of front upper teeth are most often in contact with the lower lip, and sometimes even goes beyond it. The bottom row begins to deform because certain teeth grow in the wrong direction. The result is a masticatory ability. In addition, a person have problems with biting and chewing hard food.
The main cosmetic defect is much smaller jaw, which leads to the violation of the proportions of the face. Most often, the deformation of the lower jaw causes malocclusion. This pathology may be accompanied by diseases of a genetic nature, such as patau syndrome and Edwards. In case of improper development of the lower part of the face, it is called a bird. When the disease of this nature, the language has almost no support, so quite often it is ceasing. This can lead to serious violations of respiratory function and problems eating.
Diagnosis of microgenia performed by certain characteristic symptoms. First and foremost, there is a strong deformation of the bottom row of teeth that grow in wrong direction or not cut at all. The upper teeth are normally formed, and defects of the jaw are missing. The disease may be of a minor nature or pronounced. With a small deformation of the jaw, the facial proportions are not violated.
Methods of treatment
Methods for the treatment of micrognathia usually depend on the complexity of the pathology and General condition of the patient.
In order to correct the deformation of the lower jaw, can be used conservative and surgical therapies. Conservative treatment is based on the following procedures:
- the use of different orthodontic appliances degree of complexity (the choice of tools depends on the complexity of the disease);
- use an orthodontic nipple that contribute to the formation of a normal bite (if the disease is diagnosed in infants);
- the use of dental aligners that can correct minor malocclusion and tooth growth;
- the use of chin Pras;
- the use of orthodontic plates with a built-in widegates (for the correction of the growth direction of the teeth);
- the use of crowns with redirect properties that are embedded in the jaw before the growth of a molar tooth;
- wearing other orthodontic appliances used to correct bite and correct growth of teeth;
- stimulation of the formation of a properly developed jaw with the help of medicines and physiotherapy.
Surgical treatment is an extreme measure used only in case of very serious violation of the jaw, if the conservative therapy had been ineffective and did not bring the desired result. Can be used for this, the following methods of surgical intervention:
- Method Semenchenko — based on the dissection of a deformed jaw, and further adjustment and fixed in the normal position until healing is complete.
- Plastic correction of the maxillofacial bones.
It should be remembered that conservative therapy can bring good results only if timely treatment to a specialist.
To prevent the occurrence of this disease, you must follow these rules of prevention:
- To reduce the risk of deformation of the jaw in infants breast milk is recommended.
- If breastfeeding is not possible, you must make sure that the hole on the neck of the bottle was too big.
- When choosing nipples need to be sure that she squeezed the gum and was located at a right angle relative to the chin.
- If you have any diseases of the oral cavity it is necessary to carry out their treatment.
- In case of early loss of deciduous teeth should consult the dentist to eliminate violations of the growth of the molars.
- Definitely need to overcome bad habits of a small child (thumb sucking, biting nails).
- If there are any abnormalities in the body, it is time to engage in their treatment.
All of these rules are quite simple and do not require a huge amount of time and effort to come into compliance. The implementation of such preventive measures will allow to avoid serious problems which in the future may require very complex treatment.