Non-carious lesions of teeth: classification, treatment

Non-carious lesions of teeth as widespread as tooth decay. Diseases affect the sensitivity of the teeth, changing bite, affect the aesthetics of the smile. In this article we will look at the causes that trigger their occurrence, and methods of treatment of these lesions.

Non-carious lesions of teeth

Classification of non-carious lesions of teeth includes two groups:

  • Pathology that arose prior to the eruption of the teeth:
  1. anomaly of development and eruption;
  2. hyperplasia;
  3. hypoplasia;
  4. fluorosis;
  5. hereditary lesions;
  • Pathology arising after teething:
  1. wedge-shaped defect;
  2. erosion;
  3. necrosis of the hard tissue;
  4. trauma;
  5. erase;
  6. pigmentation and raids;
  7. hypersensitivity.

Destruction, formed at the stage of eruption

Milk teeth begin to be laid at 4-8 weeks of embryogenesis, their differentiation occurs at 12-14 weeks and 17-18 weeks is in the process of mineralization. Violation of metabolism in the pregnant woman’s body, strong toxicity, rhesus incompatibility, rheumatic fever, neuropathy, endocrine diseases, adverse environmental factors are the cause for non-carious lesions of hard tissues of teeth in children.
Sixteen permanent teeth begins from the fifth month, and mineralization of the ninth month of fetal development and continues until nine months of age. The appearance of anomalies in permanent teeth associated with toxemia in late pregnancy and diseases of the baby.

Lose prior to the eruption can cause genetic mutations or genetic predisposition.

Anomalies of development and eruption, change of shade

This disease appears in children with physical development disorders, rickets, if there is a disorder of the endocrine or nervous system. Violation of the period of teething is often caused by the abnormal location of the rudiments or improper development of the jaw, merging the roots of two teeth.

Anomalies are divided into groups:

  • the change in the number of teeth (baby is born with teeth or they erupt out of the dentition);
  • violation of the appearance of the crowns (fused teeth);
  • change of structure;
  • changing the shade of the enamel.

Hyperplasia

Is characterized by excessive formation of tissue. This is due to anomalies in the formation of the epithelium, enamel, dentin. Hyperplasia formed «drops» with a diameter of 5 mm, localized on the neck of the tooth. The structure of the drop is represented by the enamel, dentin inside or connective tissue resembling pulp.

If the patient turns for help to the dentist, it is an aesthetic problem, such as education do not cause discomfort. The doctor carries out the grinding and alignment of enamel.

Hypoplasia

Pathology caused by the scarcity of minerals in hard tissues of the tooth. This is the result of improper synthesis of the organic matrix, failure of crystallization or mineralization. When the disease of a tooth is either missing altogether, or it is smaller than it should be. The authority has no enamel or it is too thin, visible yellow stains. The disease is not progressing and the structure of the enamel will not be restored.

The causes of hypoplasia:

  1. rhesus incompatibility between mother and child;
  2. during pregnancy, the woman underwent an infectious disease;
  3. strong morning sickness during pregnancy;
  4. birth prematurely;
  5. dystrophy or disease of the gastrointestinal tract of the child at an early age;
  6. trauma to the jaw bone.
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Hypoplasia can be either local or systemic. When the local affected one or more organs in a system — symmetric teeth. Local hypoplasia occurs due to inflammation of the follicle or mechanical damage that was transferred from the untreated root of the baby tooth.

Lesions formed simultaneously, are called systemic hypoplasia. So the disease most often occurs in the incisors, canines and first molars. It tells about the illness of a child up to nine months of life.

If the child has had the infection in 3-4 years, the eventual defeat of the premolars and second molar. The symmetry of hypoplasia is that the same pathology develops on the same tooth and with the same intensity.

In this disease the patient complains of sensitivity and unaesthetic appearance. The disease in severe form provokes a rapid abrasion of enamel, the destruction and loss of the body is formed malocclusion. At the initial stage of the disease, the treatment involves bleaching the enamel. In severe require fillings or even dentures. The patient must undergo the procedure of remineralization to strengthen the hard tissues.

To prevent disease it is recommended when carrying a child, increased consumption of foods rich in vitamins a, b, C, D, trace elements calcium and fluorine and is especially careful oral hygiene.

Fluorosis

Disease is to be feared only when the tab and the mineralization of dental tissue. Fluorosis occurs due to large concentrations of fluoride in bone tissue cells. It changes the structure of cells and leads to visual defects, for example, occurrence of spots, stripes, grooves, inclusions.

Forms of fluorosis:

  • line (visible white lines);
  • spotted (visible yellow or melvinia smooth areas);
  • malovydne-speckled (noticeable areas where there is no enamel, they come in yellow, white or painted in brown color);
  • erosive (you can see a lot of enamel erosion, there are places without enamel);
  • destructive (there is a rapid attrition of enamel that leads to exposure of dentin and change of the tooth crown).

If the excess of fluorine in the embryonic period, the pathology is visible with the appearance of the milk teeth. If the child has received too much fluoride before the age of three years, then the changes are permanent teeth. With a small excess of fluorine changes occur only on the incisors, with a significant excess of affect all teeth.

For treatment it is necessary to carry out the procedure of remineralization, as well as to reconstruct the shape and color of the crown. Therapy depends on the manifestations of fluorosis. When spotted is a whitening and coating of the enamel mineral composition, in some cases, this requires removing the top layer of the tooth. To treat erosive form will require recovery on veneers or crowns. Need to pay special attention to the intake of fluoride in the child’s body (supply water filter and prefer toothpastes with calcium).

Hereditary lesions

Non-carious lesions of teeth appear not only due to external influences or internal processes, some are due to heredity.

Abnormal development of the ectoderm or mesoderm contributes to the improper development of the enamel and dentin. A wrong structure of both enamel and dentin found in marble or illness Lobstein-Frolik passed on from parents. Treatment is based on the crowns.

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Lesions after the process of teething

Cause of lesions are adverse factors of the environment. It can be caused by the food consumed by the patient, treatment some drugs, working conditions, mechanical impact, lack of hygiene.

Wedge-shaped defect

This non-carious damage of tooth in which body is destroyed at the base. Patient care not only the aesthetics of the dentition, but pain occurs when in contact with any irritants and pain when sanitary procedures.

The causes of pathology:

  1. the poor hygiene of the oral cavity. Improper cleaning can remain plaque at the base of the tooth, which destroys the hard tissue;
  2. gum disease (gingivitis, periodontitis);
  3. thyroid dysfunction or high acid content in the gastric juice.

If the damage is minor, then carried out the procedure for recovery of calcium and fluorine in the tissues. Serious violations require installation of the seal.

Erosion

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The pathology is characterized by the gradual destruction of the enamel and dentin that affect the sensitivity and color.

The reasons why can develop non-carious lesion, a variety. It may be mechanical injury, when brushing your teeth the wrong toothbrush or toothpaste with a major abrasive fractions. Eating certain foods containing large amounts of vitamin C or high in acidity (pickles, marinades, fresh citrus juices). Another possible cause of the disease of the stomach or thyroid dysfunction.

The first sign of trouble — the loss of sparkle in a small area of enamel, then there is a gradual erosion of enamel and dentin. For the treatment use of an application with the active substance, in which the trace elements fluoride and calcium (course 20 days), then the plot is covered with varnish. If you want to restore, then apply veneers or crowns. Prescribers vitamins and minerals.

Necrosis of hard tissues

Death of tissue starts with loss of gloss and appearance malovydne spots. With the progression of the disease areas are painted in brown color. The site of the lesion is observed a softening of the enamel and dentin pigmentation. The sensitivity increases. Typically, necrosis starts at the neck of the tooth. The cause of the disease is hormonal imbalance in the body.

Therapy is to strengthen the hard tissues and the reduction of tooth sensitivity, you may need orthopaedic treatment.

Pathological erasing

With age every human enamel begins to thin, is the so-called physiological erasing. It begins after 35 years. When the disease process is faster.

Stage of abrasion:

  • To wash the surface layer of enamel, malocclusion is not changed, the complaints patients may not be offered;
  • Erased the deep layers of the hard tissue and the top layer of dentin, changes the bite and face shape. Patients treated because of tooth sensitivity and unaesthetic appearance of the dentition;
  • Addresses the deeper layers of dentin, changes the occlusion and the shape of the face, appear abnormalities in the temporomandibular joint, with characteristic symptoms: migraine, reducing the severity of hearing a crunch in the joints.
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Treatment.

Injury

Causes of mechanical damage: blows to the jaw, a fall or injury in case of continuous contact with foreign bodies, the use of solid food. Cause trauma to other non-carious lesions, for example, fluorosis, hypoplasia.

Pigmentation and deposits on the teeth

Found in both soft and hard deposits. They change the tint on and affect the supporting tissue of the adjacent teeth.

Scaling occurs in people who do not observe the mouth hygiene or gum disease. It consists of food particles, dead skin epithelium, leukocytes, and pathogenic microorganisms. If not removed, the calcium salts in the saliva, contribute to its hardening into Tartar.

The color of enamel can vary as a result of hit of blood in the pulp, severe flu or cholera (turn pink), when teeth turn yellow jaundice, intake of tetracycline during pregnancy or at an early age leads to gray-yellow color of the enamel.

Plaque cleaning is carried out using hydrogen peroxide. Stones are removed with ultrasound and polishing with special brushes and pastes, and then disinfected. Changing the color of the tooth is bleached, if that’s not enough, then put porcelain crowns.

Hypersensitivity

This is a non-carious lesion of dental hard tissues, usually related disease. There is excessive sensitivity of a body to stimuli. More predisposed to the disease women.
Classification of hyperesthesia:

Depending on the lesion:
  • a limited form (applies to one or more teeth);
  • generalized sensitive teeth.
On the etiology of the disease:
  • appears after abrasion of the enamel;
  • the result state of the organism as a whole.
Symptoms:
  • a sharp pain appears in response to temperature stimuli, e.g. cold ice-cream or hot coffee;
  • pain when eating sweet or sour food;
  • pain any stimuli, even when touched.

For the treatment of hyperesthesia surgery is sometimes needed (in the case of the anomalous subsidence of the gums or exposing the cervical area of the tooth). Therapeutic methods represent an application of fluoride application on damaged tissue. If the disease is the result of increased abrasion of enamel, then orthodontic therapy is required.

Non-carious lesions, as a rule, the investigation of the pathology of enamel that occurs after tooth eruption or during their formation. In any case, it affects the appearance and require professional treatment. Because the self is quite difficult to see pathology at the initial stage, it is recommended to visit the dentist twice a year.