Numbering of the teeth in dentistry: diagram, photos
For most people the numbering of the teeth in dentistry remains a mystery. Puzzled cause the numbers that dentists use in the treatment or surveys: 41st or 43rd, and the children, for example, of the 72nd.
In this article, with the help of diagrams and photos we will try to shed light on the question of how to count teeth in adults and children.
The number of teeth and types of numbering
Normal number of teeth in the mouth of a man – 32, but this number can vary depending on the growth process of the wisdom teeth.
How do you determine the numbers for jaw? It is necessary to remember that the structure of the arrangement of the teeth symmetrical.
Any numbering is based on the types and arrangement of teeth. There are 4 types:
- Incisors — used for biting pieces of food. All of them have human eight: four on the upper and lower jaws;
- Canines — tear off pieces of very solid food. A person has all four fangs two on the top and bottom jaws;
- Premolars (small molars) — after the food was bitten off by incisors and canines, she chew they. Altogether there are eight premolars;
- The molars, or large cheek teeth perform chewing function. If the wisdom teeth a person has grown up without problems and complications, molars he will have twelve.
When pointing tooth it is possible to use conventional terminology, which comes from the above types and their arrangement. For example, the right of the upper left canine, but this form of definition is quite uncomfortable. This is especially true of dentists who would have to use a lot of words to refer to only a few teeth, so came up with easy and clear numbering.
How to count the teeth in an adult? Photo
The doctors began to ask this question for a long time and have developed an impressive number of numbering systems of the teeth. For example, the designation of the permanent teeth with Arabic number system, and dairy — Roman.
Or the numbering was carried out entirely in Arabic numerals, and the jaw — signs «plus» or «minus». In some countries, it was decided to designate the teeth and the letters and numbers at the same time. For each kind of tooth was fixed a certain letter and it added a digit depending on its location.The medicine is not stopped at these intricate numbering systems, although each of them lasts a long time.
In the early 1970-ies was established by the international numbering system, which is considered the most progressive and easy. The bottom line is that both jaws is conventionally divided into 4 sectors. The upper right sector included teeth numbered 11 to 18, and the upper left – from 21 to 28. Jaws divided in the clockwise direction. Accordingly, the left half of the mandible starts with 31 and ends at 38, and right from 41 to 48.
Another more graphic illustration:
As you can see in the picture, the numbering starts with number 11 on the right part of the upper jaw. Let’s see more rooms to paint each tooth and how to properly count.
11, the first upper right one;
21 – the first top left;
12, the second upper right;
22, the second upper left;
31, the first lower left;
41, the first lower right;
32, the second lower left;
42, the second bottom right.
13 – upper right;
23 – upper left;
33 – lower left;
43 – lower right.
14, the first upper right one;
24, the first upper left;
15, the second upper right;
25, the second upper left;
34, the first lower left;
44, the first lower right;
35, the second lower left;
45 – second lower right.
16, the first upper right one;
26 – upper left first;
17, the second upper right;
27, the second upper left;
18 – third the upper right;
28 – the third left upper;
36, the first lower left;
46, the first lower right;
37, the second lower left;
47, the second lower right;
38, the third lower left;
48 – third lower right.
At first glance, the numbering may seem daunting and confusing but if you understand the system, contact with her is very easy and convenient. This is a common system for the dental notation of the teeth that acts since 1971.
The numbering of teeth in children
Due to the presence of milk teeth children’s tooth numbering must be different. This issue tried to solve in different ways: designated baby teeth Latin numerals, or small Roman letters.
But such numbering is different from the adult characters and this caused a lot of difficulties. Therefore, doctors have developed a version to compare with the adult.
The entire dentition of the child has twenty milk teeth – eight incisors, four canines, eight molars. Numbering differs from adult only in tens. Children’s teeth begin to identify with the number 51, under which is a first upper right incisor. Numbering is done clockwise and looks like this:
51, the first upper right incisor;
61, the first upper left incisor;
52, the second upper right incisor;
62, the second upper left incisor;
71 first lower left incisor;
81 the first right lower incisor;
72 second lower left incisor;
82, the second lower right incisor.
53 – upper right canine;
63 – upper left canine;
73 – left lower canine;
83 – bottom right Fang.
54 first upper right molar;
64 – first upper left molars
55 second upper right molar;
65, the second upper left molar;
74 first lower left molar;
84 first lower right molar;
75, the second lower left molar;
85 – second lower right molar.
As you can see, the number of permanent and milk incisors and canines alike. But the children have no premolars and no milk wisdom teeth (third molars). Because of this, babies are only twenty milk teeth and the adult is thirty-two permanent.
Video: first teeth — Dr. Komarovsky’s school
The numbering system Haderup
In this system, upper and lower teeth distinguish the signs of «+» and «-«, the sign «+» denotes the teeth of the upper jaw. To learn which tooth is calculated, it is necessary to connect the Arabic numeral with these signs.
The system offers and the numbering of primary teeth a person’s. To do this to the figure from 1 to 5 add 0 in front. «+» and «-» will continue to designate the upper and lower teeth.
It was developed in the mid-NINETEENTH century, its essence lies in the fact that the permanent teeth are designated by Arabic number system, and dairy – Roman. To do this, use the Arabic numbers from 1 to 8, and Roman numeral from I to V on each with the four sides of both jaws. Despite more than a century, this system continues to be used by modern dentists.
One of the most complex and intricate, but is widely used among American dentists. The teeth are assigned to the Latin letters, depending on their type. Therefore, the cutters will be designated by the letter I, the fangs of the letter C, premolars – P, molars – M. it Turns out that the tooth row will have eight teeth with the letter I, four with the letter C, eight with the letter P and the twelve with the letter M.
To know which tooth is indicated in a particular case, they add the numbers from 1 to 2 for incisors and premolars, from 1 to 3 for molars. Canines are identified with the letter C, because each side has only one Fang. For milk teeth in the system applies the same logic to the numbering, but the permanent teeth represent the capital letters, and mammary – small.
On the second chart depicts the permanent and milk teeth. According to the alphanumeric numbering system, little with is a milk tooth, and the teeth are denoted by capital Latin letters are permanent.