Numbering of the teeth in dentistry
For the dentist we are faced with some dental terms, for example, in assessing the condition the doctor calls teeth numbers, we have nothing to say. Probably everyone else from school biology remembers that in the mouth of an adult 32 teeth. And how to understand when the card fills dentist calls status 41, or 48, and the child of ‘ 72. For the majority of patients, the numbering of the teeth in dentistry is not entirely clear. We will help you to understand how I think teeth all dentists in adults and in children, what is the formula of the teeth and what she could tell.
Normal mouth an adult from 28 to 32 teeth, the child has 20 milk teeth, in four years there are two indigenous. Name the types of teeth in humans:
- the incisors. Are cutting edge and are used for biting and tearing pieces of food. Only 8 of them 4 on each jaw. Distinguish Central and lateral incisors;
- fangs. Necessary to tear off pieces of food. There are 4 canines, 2 on each jaw. It is easily recognized by konusopodobnyh form. Canines in humans is not as developed as the predators;
- premolars and small molars. They must grind, grind food so that digestion were spending less energy. They are located at the side of the teeth and there are eight of them, two on each side;
- molars (large cheek or chewing) is necessary for grinding food. If erupted wisdom teeth, all molars will be 12.
Dental formulas are used to describe the types of teeth typical for systems of mammals and other tetrapods. The dental formula of an adult as follows:
This means that an adult in the same row, there are two pairs of incisors, one pair of canines, two pairs of premolars and three pairs of molars. Thus in one jaw of 16 teeth. For the milk dentition teeth formula is slightly different:
As you can see, there are no premolars and small molars and the third pair of molars. Premolars will only appear in 9-12 years, and third molars or wisdom teeth can stay in the jaw and never grow.
Why use numbering
Of course, when examining and filling out medical documentation to call the teeth by their names. For example, the upper left small root. But no matter how much time it took not only to record the condition of the entire oral cavity, but just to enumerate all 32 teeth. In order to save time and was invented by the numbering of the teeth, and not one.
Dentist on examination, the patient must assess the condition of the entire mouth and indicate whether there is a pathology in each specific chewing on. All information is recorded in personal medical records. It is necessary to track the progression of the disease and to consider the dynamics of recovery.
The numbering system in dentistry
Each masticatory organ performs a specific task, such as grinding or biting pieces of food. They are located in a certain order, and one half of the jaw is a mirror reflection of the other, and the upper tooth row is nearly indistinguishable from the lower, except that the canines and Central incisors are more pronounced at the top. These characteristics were taken into account in the design of encoding techniques. There are diagrams of the teeth with a digital designation, and alphanumeric.
Dentists use several systems:
- Sismondi Palmer;
- Alphanumeric (American);
- Or the European system of viola.
Explain how, in practice, apply these methods.
In this system, to indicate teeth numbers are used, but for irregular heart letters. The numbering of all the teeth is in order and starts on the right side of the upper jaw and proceeds clockwise. The dentist transfers the teeth of the upper jaw from right to left and bottom left to right. Thus, under the first wisdom tooth is the thirty-second tooth. If they haven’t erupted, then the count starts from the second position and does not include the 16 and 17 tooth and ends on 31.
Universal system schematically as follows:
To designate milk the tooth using the same principle, only they are labeled with letters.
The System Of Viola
Almost 50 years ago established the international system of numbering, which is recommended for dentists all over the world. In order to understand it you need to mentally jaw divided into 4 equal parts, and number them clockwise from the top left. In this system each organ has a code consisting of two digits, the first of which indicates the segment number. Within the segment numbering goes from Central incisor to third molar.
According to the method of the upper right side of jaw will contain the numbers from 11 to 18, top left from 21 to 28, lower left with the numbers from 31 to 38, and the lower right from 41 to 48. Thus, the upper left canine is at number 13, the tooth underneath 43, and the lower right premolar 34, if near the Fang, or 35, if its neighbour molar.
When numbering children teeth the same principle. But to understand that the mouth of the child segments are numbered 5 through 8. It turns out that the 85 tooth is the second lower left molar.
The advantage of this system is the precise description of the specific location of the tooth relative to the right-left and other masticatory organs. Besides, it is easy to understand and contains no cumbersome notation and names.
In this system, to specify which jaw is the upper and which lower, use the signs «+» and «-«. Accordingly, the upper jaw is indicated by «+», bottom «-«. In order to prescribe what kind of tooth, to sign Arabic numeral is added: if the left quarter, the figure is placed to the left, if right, then to the right. The scheme is as follows:
To refer to temporary teeth to the human figure is filled with «0».
System Sismondi Palmer
The system has a history of centuries and is used by dentists today. Permanent teeth are denoted by Arabic and Roman numerals dairy. The countdown starts with the Central incisors. In order to specify the localization in a row, put a sign in the form of two lines touching at a right angle (G), hence its second name «square-digital».
Entries in the medical record are done so only on the printed pattern in order to avoid possible errors. Most often such a system used by orthodontists and maxillofacial surgeons.
This formula is used by us dentists, is one of the most complex systems. In it each type has the letter that begins the names of the teeth in Latin:
- incisors — Incisivus (I);
- fangs — Caninus ©;
- small indigenous — Premolaris (P);
- great root — Molaris (M).
It turns out that to represent a single segment of the dentition will be used three «M» s, two «R» s, one «C» and two «I». For a specific designation on the letter is added to the index. So, the Central cutter is denoted by I1, I2 and the side for molar which is adjacent to the premolar code M1. Fang is denoted without index, because he’s the only one in the segment. Milk teeth in this system are denoted by small Latin letters, and the root title. With this system you can easily display the change of milk teeth. Diagram of an adult:
The scheme of the child 9-12 years:
From the scheme presented above, we see that the child has replaced almost all of the teeth except for the root of the second molars and canines, premolars appeared.
This system does not take into account the location of chewing on the sides that can cause some difficulties.
As an example
As you can see, that in determining the number of teeth in any system is not difficult. You should remember that if the schema specifies a 32 tooth, the countdown starts from the upper right wisdom tooth, in its absence, the numbering is from the second issue. If the formula of an adult 48 positions, there are signs «+» or «-» or a graphic image (G is turned in different directions), the jaw I divided into four equal segments and start the countdown to the Central incisor.
As an example, describe how is called the bicuspid, located in the upper right next to Fang:
- in the universal system has 5-th issue;
- square-digital «top-right four»;
- under the scheme Haderup — «+4 to the right»;
- in the European scheme or viola are marked 14;
- in the alphanumeric — «top to the right of R1».
If in the oral cavity in humans, the masticatory organs of the normal amount, then their number is not difficult for the dentist. With ease, using one of the considered schemes, we can describe the condition of the teeth a two year old child, a teenager or a man of advanced age in which there are only three. But there are anomalies in the development of the rudiments, when the organ is cut out of a number, for example, on the gums or the palate (hyperdontia or polydentia) or has an irregular shape and located at least in dentition, but takes the place of two of the masticatory organs. In this case you cannot use standard layouts and formulas. In such cases, the medical record of the patient provides information about the location of the teeth with a detailed description of their number and condition.
Now you know how dentist counts the teeth, and will easily be able to understand what kind of chewing on it is.