Panoramic picture of the teeth: how to do, and for what?
Panoramic picture of the teeth can be considered a «gold standard» in dentistry. Without high-quality x-ray examination of many types of dental treatment are not worth starting.
On film or digital media displays all the dental system: from the nasal bone and the maxillary sinuses to the chin, from one temporomandibular joint to the other one.
Why you need a orthopantomogram?
Orthopantomogram (OPG) is displayed on film or paper at the same time in both jaws with the surrounding soft tissue and bone structure. Qualitatively made a panoramic image gives complete information to the dentist about the state of dentoalveolar apparatus.
In the oral cavity is visually determined by no more than 50% of the tissues. What is deep and hidden from professional view of the doctor, perfectly displayed on orthopantomographic x-ray, without a clear display, it is impossible to make an accurate diagnosis. Finished picture can be printed on paper or x-ray film, and can be viewed from a computer screen.
In the analysis of panoramic x-ray are determined by:
- hidden carious cavity on contact surfaces of teeth;
- carious lesions of the root;
- the presence of cysts, granulomas and other oculocardiac changes;
- the status of the interdental partitions and periodontal tissues;
- the stage of teething children;
- the presence of impacted teeth;
- tumors of the jaw bones;
- as the maxillary sinuses.
Modern varieties OPG should include 3d imaging. A three-dimensional image gives a more accurate representation of the condition of the teeth and surrounding tissues, allows to look into the jaws of the patient in real time. On the computer monitor the image is rotated to the desired projection to do a virtual tissue sections and layers to explore a specific area.
In some cases, perform panoramic x-ray?
Orthopantomogram necessary in all types of dental care. The procedure does not cause pain, takes a little time, virtually no contraindications.
Panoramic x-rays do in the following cases:
- when carrying out implant treatment: for the assessment of bone and choice of design. Incorrectly a certain distance to the mandibular canal threatens a violation of the sensitivity of the chin and lower lip;
- to assess the quality of endodontic treatment and the condition of the roots of the teeth before the prosthesis;
- if you select orthodontic structures (braces) to align teeth and changes in the distal or mesial malocclusion. Before installing, multibinding system will determine the required number of places;
- during surgery;
- during this surgery, complicated tooth extraction, dentist, surgeon it is important to see not only the problem tooth, but also the surrounding tissue;
- for the evaluation of dentoalveolar system in children and adolescents in the period of development rudiments and teething;
- to determine the severity of periodontal disease (condition and height of walls, depth of pockets);
- for early diagnosis of tumors.
How does the OPG?
How to make a panoramic picture of the teeth?
Before an x-ray, the patient must remove all metal products, located in the neck and head. For protection against radiation the person offering apron lead protective membrane.
Let’s consider the stages of the procedure:
- The patient is asked to stand inside the orthopantomograph.
- People with teeth grips a plastic tube, while keeping the lips closed. In place of missing teeth, the doctor will put cushions out of wool.
- Firmly push the plate apparatus to the chest, grasping the handle to fix the position.
- Standing without motion, to avoid distortion of the picture.
- If necessary, the radiologist will ask you to change the rotation and tilt of the head.
- The machine will move around your head. It takes no more than 20-30 seconds.
Advantages and disadvantages
The apparatus is convenient for both patient and doctor.
- the get quickly — within 5 minutes of the film, displaying jaws available for study;
- with the ability to adjust the height of the radiator, panoramic images can do to children and patients in wheelchairs;
- small dose, not more than 0.02 mSv, this value is less than it was when the sighting of dental images. Such x-ray burden a person receives in a single flight on the plane, which suggests that the procedure is virtually harmless;
- high image quality;
- in the analysis of the digital image on the monitor has the ability to bring the desired area for more detailed examination;
- thanks to the Internet, the panorama can instantly send to any place. This is useful when the attending physician is in another clinic or city;
- the study, for safety reasons, is allowed to assign to elderly people and patients with disabilities.
With caution should designate orthopantomography pregnant patients, especially during the first trimester, when there is a bookmark of future organs. OPG should be conducted with the consent of the gynecologist.
X-ray circular study can be carried out after a consultation with a pediatrician, but still abuse the frequency of the procedure is not necessary.
What is circular dental radiograph?
Circular study of the jaws with an x-ray machine gives full information about the health of the oral cavity of the patient.
A panoramic image is performed to:
- to identify hidden tooth decay;
- to assess the quality of stopping of channels;
- to diagnose marginal periodontitis;
- confirm or exclude fractures of the tooth roots and jaw bone injuries;
- to assess the rudiments of permanent teeth in children;
- to assess the quality of the bone structure, to identify areas of bone destruction.
Video: what is a panoramic image of teeth and how to diagnose?
► How much?
Amount for obtaining x-ray panoramic image varies. It depends on novelty and the company apparatus, as well as the hospital to which a person asked for this procedure. The average price is 800 – 1000 rubles.
For this price, you can obtain a complete mapping of the jaws and surrounding tissues. One such picture is informative for several months, after which it is recommended to re-image to monitor the dynamics of changes.
► Where can I do it?
Almost every state medical institution providing the dental care. Many private dental clinics equipped with digital or film units.
► Harmful if a panoramic image or not?
Harm from carrying out panoramic radiography is negligible (the exposure is equal to one flight in the plane). Digital research carries less radiation exposure compared to film. Load fluorography ten times more, for example.
► How often can you do?
To conduct the panoramic x-rays as often as is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.