Pathological dental abrasion: symptoms, treatment
From the condition of the teeth and oral cavity depends largely on a person’s appearance and his health in General. And if your doctor has found abnormal tooth wear, symptoms and treatment of which we will tell more, you should not ignore such problem.
Even caries, malocclusion, enamel darkening and disgusting breath can become a barrier in communication and provoke discomfort. As for the described disease, it can be a symptom of more serious disorders in the body and cause new trouble.
What is a pathologic dental abrasion and is it normal for such a phenomenon?
In the normal course of life the enamel is gradually erased from chewing, from the age and other natural causes. Normal up to 30 years can be erased only the top of the crown and occlusal tubercles. And to 50 – to wash the enamel on your teeth almost completely. However, dentin, however, is not affected. And yet, when you wipe the tooth surface reaches a critical and appreciable extent, it is necessary to visit the dentist.
If the problem will be detained long without medical intervention, the consequences will be irreversible – will start the deformation of the jaw, there is a pathology in the work of the masticatory muscles and even the pulp will die. As a result – the complete destruction or loss of a tooth or the entire series.
Sometimes can appear physiological changes that are visible externally – the folds around the mouth, reduced lower part of the face, disturbed occlusion and normal teeth color. More severe damage will lead to the complete removal of the tissue to the gum itself.
Therefore, in a situation when erased teeth, you need to know exactly what to do. The first is to visit a doctor who will be able to carry out a correct diagnosis, to establish the degree and type of disorder and to select appropriate treatment. If you go to the doctor every six months or at the first unpleasant sensations, it is possible to prevent the aggravation of the problem and in a short time to restore health.
To understand why happened this pathology in a particular patient, it is necessary to conduct a full analysis of his life and even learn about family diseases. After all, the reasons can be as negative external effects and internal health problems, and congenital or acquired characteristics.
The most dangerous and serious causes are internal problems. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease is established at a young age. These include:
- From birth broken processes of formation and mineralization of hard tissues. This could also happen during pregnancy, when the mother’s body is not enough trace elements for the formation of the fetus. And if these do not have enough vitamins for the proper growth of the teeth in the first year of a child’s life.
- Of hereditary pathology on the type of marble disease, osteogenesis, etc.
- Problems can arise in more Mature age – poor diet, disorders of thyroid function, low calcium absorption, etc.
External influence on tooth tissues can be quite aggressive:
- Heavy production, work in the factory or in the mine often leads to excessive abrasion due to vibration and tension of the masticatory muscles.
- Bad habits as a factor in tooth decay.
- Partial loss of units, the installation of dentures.
- Bruxism, the grinding during sleep.
If it is possible to change bad habits or to protect in any way the teeth from the negative effects, it should be done. In another case, only to restore the removed surface of the artificial ways and try to stop the destruction process.
Classification of the disease
Classification of abrasion of the teeth is seen from multiple positions.
► Depending on how was the destruction of enamel or dentin, there are degrees of the disease:
- I – the problem affects only a small surface, usually incisors.
- II – the crown of the tooth is destroyed to the dentin, the enamel is almost gone.
- III. unit is erased by half or even more. A clinical examination is definitely an open cavity.
- IV – hard tissue are left. The destruction reaches all the way to the base of the tooth.
► Isolated and different planes which succumbed to Erasure:
- Vertical – occurs when an incorrect bite. In this embodiment, damaged the front part of the lower and upper rear units.
- Horizontal – decreases the height of the crowns.
- Mixed – parallel tooth decay in both planes.
► Form of the disease can be:
- Local – erase give only a small region of the dentition.
- Generalized – involves entire jaw. The degree of the lesion in each part may vary.
In reality, the disease occurs in many different forms and options. There are a combination of several degrees of destruction across the jaw, and the minimum in a restricted area. Also might be an option-erase surfaces in both horizontal and vertical planes.
The most hazardous situation when destruction comes to internal parts. If the pulp dies and affected dentin, the process becomes rapid and irreversible.
The more serious the loss of tooth tissue and the longer the patient ignores it, the harder and become more noticeable signs of the disease. Among them are:
- Increased sensitivity to cold and hot products, and further reaction occurs and chemical composition.
- Changing the shade of the enamel.
- The patient feels the occurrence of surface roughness of the tooth.
- When you compress the feeling of sticky jaws.
- As a result of more serious erasing, you notice disturbance of speech and the process of mastication.
- At the maximum of the degrees of defeat will change the lower part of the face, it will be like less.
- Pain while eating.
- Often, biting your lips and cheeks from the inside.
In some cases, it may appear wedge-shaped defect, which accompanies this disease or any other oral pathology. If abrasion not to pay attention and not to adjust in time the height of the bite, there will be pathology of the masticatory muscles and joints honest.
The doctor must contact the patient to find out all possible causes and associated diseases, which led him to the problem. Because only understand the whole picture, it is possible to properly prescribe treatment. Sometimes, in addition to orthodontic manipulation necessary changes in other areas.
So, use the following diagnostic procedures to determine the extent, cause and forms of abrasion of teeth:
- A survey of the patient of life, hereditary diseases, peculiarities of operation and possible disturbances in the metabolism.
- Visual inspection of the oral cavity.
- Palpation of soft tissues and entire jaw joint to detect serious pathology.
- Radiography and electroodontodiagnosis.
- In some cases, and a consultation with a neurologist or other doctors.
Important in the process of communication with the patient to adjust it to the fact that the disease is a serious problem, and the whole healing process can be long and laborious, but it is required to pass. Because modern methods of correction are available and give good results.
Treatment of pathological abrasion of the teeth
Only if you are installing the correct diagnosis it is possible to achieve complete healing. In this case it is important:
- Stop the destructive process.
- Necessary to remove the cause of the disease.
- To restore the removed enamel and return to the original level of the crowns.
- To replace dentures if necessary.
- To give the patient the opportunity to adapt to the new position of the jaw and its work.
Each stage can take a long time and all this time the patient needs to happen more often at receptions at the dentist, especially if there is any discomfort.
In some cases, in parallel will need to visit another doctor. For example, if the disease has developed due to night grinding of teeth, the neurologist is obliged to undertake meaningful consultation, in order to eliminate the psychological cause.
If the disease develops as a result of other internal problems, then they also need to work on. What have to do during treatment, will strictly depend on the characteristics of the patient, causes abrasion of teeth, degree and form of the disease.
Restoration of destroyed crowns can occur through a variety of devices:
- Temporary prostheses or special diagnostic and treatment unit.
- The permanent structures.
- Forged crowns.
- Special cap, etc.
The treatment goes through the following stages:
- Restore the height of the dentition. This could be done by raising of the bite tabs, Burr, temporary dentures. If there is an incorrect position of the jaws as the causes of pathological abrasion, there is an additional installation of braces. The whole process of selecting the right tab, the right size and position correction of the jaws takes place by means of roentgenography.
- Adaptation period can last 2-3 weeks or longer. The fact that initially the height of the crown is set much higher than usual for the patient. And if he notices increasing pain, then the height quickly clean 2-3 mm. When getting used to her artificial crowns are increasing again with the help of special tools. If the patient absolutely cannot, for any reason, to adjust and to feel comfortable with the required height of the bite, the doctor needs to make the most tolerant. Only after the removal of the pain begins the adaptation period.
- With full correction of the work of the masticatory muscles and adjusting the jaw to a new position, the doctor must choose the appropriate type of prosthesis to be used on a regular basis. It can be both removable and non-removable options. In the first case, perhaps the patient will be a long time to deal with the problem, as the frequent removal of the prosthesis make it worse and do not resolve. The best option is a fixed design, as the person will not be able to disrupt the healing process.
When choosing dentures, it is important to take into account the material from which are made artificial teeth and method of their creation. There are many factors that influence the choice – as opposed to the teeth has already established implants or crowns, the presence of concomitant diseases, degree of problem, etc.
For example, chewing on units with installed bridges is not recommended to use plastic. For a permanent set of dentures, you can choose porcelain or other materials, but always in the cast form. If a person experiences a continuing increased stress on the jaw apparatus, adequate can be the use of metal structures.
Video: causes of pathological abrasion of teeth.
Whatever dental problem nor appeared in person, its much easier to remove in case of early detection. And for this you need to visit a dental office every six months. In this case, the doctor immediately detects the onset of the disease and help prevent the aggravation of the problem.
If we are talking about the prevention of pathological abrasion of teeth, in addition to doctor visits and proper oral hygiene should:
- As early as possible to correct the bite when violations.
- In the event of removal or loss of dental units, then they can be restored with dentures or implants.
- To cure bruxism, if you suffer from it.
- When hazardous production processes or vibrations during operation to protect the dentition with special devices.
- Proper nutrition and additional vitamin-mineral complexes, can help replenish the missing trace minerals in the body.
- When working with acids and other chemicals be sure to rinse your mouth with soda solution.
- To abandon bad habits.
About increased abrasion
It is established that the pathological Erasure of more and more distributed. Today it is 12% of the world population, with men suffer from this more often.
At a young age can be diagnosed with erosion of enamel and even the affected part of the dentin that leads to the accelerated process of destruction of hard tissues. More often this disease affects people of age 30 years and above, but there are cases when it is a teenager’s teeth are beginning to fade.
► Code for ICD-10
According to the International classification of diseases it is possible to find the number К03.0 as increased abrasion of the teeth. In this case, it is divided into proksimalnee and occlusion.
► To what doctor to address?
At the first signs of the emergence of pathological or natural, but excessive abrasion of the tooth, contact a dentist or orthodontist.