Periodontal disease: symptoms, treatment, causes, photos

Unnoticed periodontal disease affects the oral cavity, because once the symptoms do not appear. In this article we will look at the treatments and causes, a submitted photo will help to understand what are the outward signs has this unpleasant disease.

From all variety of dental problems, periodontal disease does not apply to the most common diseases. However, the complexity of his treatment bring a lot of problems and doctors, and patients.

More common in adulthood, though as a separate line mention should be made of juvenile (juvenile) periodontitis. It occurs in children up to 6 years and young people 12-20 years, rapidly affects the oral cavity, which leads to loss of teeth.

Periodontal disease: description of disease and what is it?

Periodontal disease is a dental disease that affects the periodontal structure around the tooth. The concept of «periodontal» includes the ligamentous apparatus of the tooth, bone walls and soft tissue of the gums.

Atrophic phenomena occurring in the soft tissues, develop slowly. Gradually the situation is exacerbated destructive processes in the jaw bones, due to which teeth lose their stability.

History of the disease has important distinctive features that make it stands out from other dental diseases. Symptoms of periodontal disease at the initial stages tiny, so often the patient is unaware of the problems, learns about the presence of disease only during a medical examination. Its main feature — the absence of inflammation, there is no redness, bleeding. Mostly the loss of gums and bone structure.

Shaky lose teeth begins long before the moment when a person notices the first symptoms. To say exactly why it occurs, it is impossible.


The classification of periodontitis is based on several criteria: how it is spread, how the disease and what types exist.

► Location:

  1. The localized form of gingival recession and bone loss are observed in a single segment, or even a single tooth, while other areas do not have signs of disease.
  2. Generalized – diffuse shaky destruction that affects all teeth.

► The shape of the current:

  1. Acute – stage disease, which is rarely detected due to the fact that periodontal disease is not related to inflammatory processes and is very rare as an independent disease.
  2. Chronic – the most common variant, which is observed among patients. Thus there is a standard manifestation of the disease, its long and sluggish course.

► Stage of periodontal disease:

  1. Mild – begins quietly, so sometimes the patient can not find it. Is the initial stage of the disease, which manifest some signs. The resulting recession often imperceptible due to covering the neck of the tooth stones.
  2. The average – an abnormal lowering of the gums, visible to the naked eye. This is the stage at which the patient observes a characteristic sign of the disease that leads to tooth mobility and form large cracks between them.
  3. Heavy – running condition of the periodontium in which the teeth are fixed in the hole only by soft tissues, as bone septum is resorbed more than three quarters of its height.

If you see the inflammation of the gums around the tooth, you need to understand what is this disease and what are treatment methods.


A definite answer to the question of why a disease occurs, no. The etiology and pathogenesis of the atrophic process are of interest to many physicians, because their exact definitions, it will be possible to find a solution.

Periodontal disease refers to not fully investigated the disease, but the factors of development can be determined. An important role plays hereditary predisposition, as there is information about a related follow-up of periodontal disease through the generations.

Periodontal destruction does not occur in adults and healthy people as well. This is preceded by some disruption of the functioning of the body: vitamin deficiency, deterioration of trophic tissue, is a common disease.

Reason, from which there is a loss of dentition:

  • systemic diseases play an important role, can be both inherited and acquired;
  • a failure in the endocrine system manifested by changes in the level of education of thyroid hormones and leads to the destruction of periodontal ligaments and loss of bone;
  • vitamin deficiency – inadequate intake of synthetic or natural vitamins in the body, which affects the nutrition of the soft tissues of the oral cavity;
  • diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder that affects blood vessels;
  • bad habits – alcohol and Smoking, which cause ischemia of the blood vessels, which contributes to the development of periodontal disease;
  • trauma from prolonged exposure to the periodontal tissues poorly made prosthetic, as well as contusions and sprains;
  • immune disturbances occurring for a long period;
  • pathologic occlusion;
  • diseases of the circulatory system and gastro-intestinal tract;
  • nervous and mental disorders.


Symptoms of periodontal disease

Clinical manifestations of shaky changes are different at different stages and fully depend on the extent of the disease. Ranging from imperceptible signs appear and intensify, bringing many problems to the patient.

  • mild symptoms of periodontal disease unobtrusive. Sometimes the patient notes the occurrence of itching in the gums, but also burning. The dentist during the examination often detects mineralized dental deposits, after their elimination found sites with gingival recession of 1-2 mm. When x-ray changes in bone structure are not detected;
  • the average degree is characterized by a marked recession of 3-4 mm, while a person complained about an unpleasant itchy sensation. The common reason for seeking medical attention is the increased sensitivity of exposed roots. The distance between the teeth increases resorption of bone walls to one third. On radiographs marked smoothed the tops of the alveolar walls, suggesting the destruction;
  • when severe, the teeth protrude from the gums more than half. There is a strong mobility of the teeth, as bone septum is atrophied. The gaps between the teeth even more increase in size, which contributes to the accumulation of food, and in the future – the formation of stones. This is the terminal stage leading to tooth loss. When studying the picture of shaky teeth detected by uneven smoothing of the bony partitions.
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A characteristic feature of periodontal disease, distinguishing it from periodontitis at each of the stages there are no symptoms of inflammation. The gums do not change color and remain pale pink, and may not have pathological periodontal pockets.


If you notice signs of receding gums and the appearance of mobility, the patient should seek the assistance of a periodontist. After dental examination and professional hygiene, the doctor prescribes examination by a physician for a detailed study of existing diseases in the body.

We should not be surprised that the dentist asks a lot of questions, not concerning the state of the oral cavity, often because periodontal disease refers to concomitant diseases and the main source of problems lies in an entirely different place.

For accurate diagnosis the doctor performs differential diagnosis of the existing clinical manifestations with symptoms of other diseases such as:

  1. Gingivitis.
  2. Periodontitis.

Gingivitis is characterized by a pronounced inflammation of the gums, manifested by redness, bleeding and pain. However, despite the severity of the disease, destruction of the jaw bone occurs. This means that the disease affects only the soft gum tissue. Unlike periodontal disease, the teeth remain stable.

Periodontitis as a periodontal disease, characterized by increased tooth mobility. But the first refers to diseases of inflammatory origin, caused by infectious contamination. Besides the fact that the gums become friable, bleeding, formation of periodontal pockets, which may develop an abscess.

Treatment of periodontal disease

Complete cure of periodontitis is impossible, existing treatments only slow down the progress of disease, lengthening term stability of the teeth.

The use of only one method of treatment of periodontal disease will not bring the desired result. A comprehensive approach to the treatment allows stabilization of the process.

  • the first stage is determining the cause. In order to remove a pathogenic effect, it is necessary to conduct a full examination of the body and to identify associated disease. It is important to understand that periodontal disease is not only a disease of the gums and teeth, as diseases of the internal organs are reflected in the mouth;
  • second – professional hygienic treatment. Abundant dental stones exert mechanical pressure on the gums, which increases the speed of recession. In addition, deposits on the teeth prevent the full penetration of drugs into the soft tissue;
  • the third – development of hygienic habits. The correct use of toothbrush and toothpaste provides adequate cleansing of the teeth, and neglect of a dentist how to brush their teeth, to raise the drooping gums, the formation of wedge-shaped defects and accumulation of pathogens in the oral cavity
  • fourth – strict adherence to medical instructions. To achieve sustainable stabilization process is most commonly applied medication, physiotherapy and surgical methods.

Video: folk prescription treatment of periodontal disease.


The use of medicines, particularly in the early stages can stop the disease and not allow it to progress. Assigned to medication contribute to the face by improving circulation.

For local treatment of periodontal disease apply the following ointment:

  • heparin ointment – a means of thinning the blood, which contributes to the advancement of vascular blood flow;
  • the caffeine is a drug possessing anti-edematous and sosudoukreplyayuschim effect, which has found application in dentistry;
  • holisal — gel used for topical treatment in dentistry. It is rubbed into periodontal tissues twice a day, and the duration of application is determined by the severity of the disease;
  • aluguel – a drug, which is chlorhexidine;
  • solcoseryl adhesive paste, used for local treatment. Rubbing the gums or under the fixing bandage promotes healing of soft tissues.

Ointments listed above will not bring the desired effect, if the treatment of periodontal disease will not be carried out in combination with other methods.

Systemic administration of antibiotics has no scientific basis, as no periodontal disease refers to diseases of bacterial etiology. Local application of ointments, which are based on antibacterial drugs, helps fight pathogenic microbes of the mouth and prevents the accession of infection and the occurrence of suppuration.

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In Soviet times, for getting rid of periodontal disease was popular method in which produced shots vitaminosoderžaŝej drugs in the gums, but this method is traumatic and painful for the patient.


Surgical treatment of periodontal disease is aimed at restoring lost bone structure and eliminate receding gums. As the experience of doctors such methods are the most effective in dealing with the destruction.

For bone grafting are used in dentistry:

  1. Autografts – bone tissue of a patient.
  2. Allografts – osteoplastic material of the donor.
  3. Xenografts – the material of another species.
  4. Of alloplastic materials produced synthetically.

To fill the bone is performed, replanting material, often synthetic, which restores missing parts of the alveoli, thus promotes regeneration.

In addition to this method of treatment is often performed:

  • closed curettage – a method of cleaning a periodontal pocket of dental plaque and subsequent epitelizaciei produced without compromising the integrity of the tissues;
  • open curettage is a more sophisticated method, which is the tearing of the gums for full access to the root surface. Used in moderate and severe stages of periodontal disease;
  • flap surgery – a surgical technique aimed at addressing the receding gums. Is performed under local anesthesia;
  • splinting is a method of removing the loose teeth with the help of combining them into one structure by plastic or composite bus.

The application of laser

The application of physical therapy techniques helps to get rid of many diseases and periodontal disease is no exception. The principle of operation is based on increased blood flow in the gums and oxygenating periodontal.

Laser treatment helps:

  1. Removal of granulation tissue from the inner surface of the gum facing the cement of the root.
  2. Smoothing of the irregularities in the hard tissues of the tooth.
  3. Elimination of deposits of stones located both outside and under the gum.

The laser has wide application in surgery, so with it being epitelizatia (removal of a thin surface layer of the epithelium for subsequent attachment), patchwork operations in the oral cavity and curettage of the pockets closed method.

How to cure periodontal disease at home?

Application of methods of folk medicine has a supporting effect due to the healing action of herbs. It is important to understand what self-treatment of periodontal disease will not bring result. Only the use of folk remedies in combination with medical manipulation is able to provide good support result.

Most effective recipes, which may have a positive effect on periodontal tissues:

  • hydrogen peroxide for Neumyvakina is a popular method used for treatment at home. To prepare a mixture take 6 g of baking soda, add to it 20 drops of lemon juice, and 40 drops of peroxide. Brush your teeth obtained means, and then eat 15-20 minutes;
  • sesame oil – Ayurvedic way to maintain dental health. To achieve the effect of oil used for rinsing the mouth, as well as patches on the gums;
  • a decoction of walnut – an effective tool to be used as a mouthwash. For the manufacture of stewed fruit is used the green shell, which has a strengthening effect;
  • decoctions of herbs – the traditional way. For these purposes, infusions and decoctions of calendula has antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effects;
  • comfrey is the best plant for regeneration and healing of bone pathologies. Make a decoction of the root, which is used for rinsing.

People’s ways will not bring deliverance from disease, and can be used only as a supplementary method. If the patient ignores the recommendations of the dentist, it will lead to a worsening situation and loss of teeth.

Massage gums

The procedure is extremely useful. Massage can be done in different ways:

  1. Finger-massage.
  2. Gentle massage with a soft toothbrush.
  3. Vacuum massage with the help of professional equipment.

If you experience periodontal disease all types of massage can be carried out only after the appointment of the dentist.

To conduct a self-massage with your fingers you should first wash hands, then clean the pads install on the gums, perpendicular to alveolar process and to make movements in a circle, pressing lightly on the mucous membrane.

Good for stimulating the circulation occurs during a massage with a toothbrush. The procedure is conveniently carried out after the evening hygiene procedures. Smooth rotational motion of the brush are made with strict control of pressure on the gums.

Vacuum massage shows good results, so often used in the early stages of the disease to stop its progression. The procedure is done in physical therapy or dental office with the help of special equipment. The creation of a vacuum enhances blood flow to the gums, strengthening and nutrition.

Video: how to massage the gums with your fingers with periodontitis?

The consequences

The running state of the mouth, manifested in abundant soft dental plaque and Tartar on the teeth, their mobility, the omission of the gums and other signs, has unpleasant consequences for the whole organism.

What happens if not treated? If periodontal disease is not to take into account not to engage in treatment with the aggravation of the disease there is a risk to part with the teeth at a fairly young age.

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As the exacerbation of the disease:

  • the level of omission of the gingival margin is reduced, leaving uncovered part of the root cement;
  • enhanced destruction of bone walls;
  • loosened teeth, which may lead to their removal;
  • there is a hypersensitivity.


It is advisable to take preventive measures to strengthen the gums, than to suffer from this disease. Complex preventive measures are simple and do not spend a lot of effort.

  • hygiene of the oral cavity is an important factor in maintaining healthy teeth and gums;
  • timely and regular visits to the dentist for the removal of deposits on teeth;
  • maintaining health and strengthening the body;
  • balanced diet;
  • the use of vitamins and minerals;
  • timely treatment of diseases of the internal organs;
  • strengthening the immune system.

The difficulties of the struggle against existing periodontal disease is complicated by the lack of full information on the reasons for the formation of the disease. Therefore maintaining health at an optimal level is the best way to reduce the risk of devastating defeats.

Video: how I cured my periodontal disease? Personal experience.

Further questions

► What periodontal disease is different from periodontitis?

The two diseases have different etiology, therefore, the distinguishing features are few. Periodontal disease is characterized by loss of alveolar bone tissue and a drooping gums, while its color remains the lack. Periodontitis has an infectious origin, and therefore has characteristic signs of inflammation: redness, local temperature increase, pain, difficulty in chewing and swelling, loss of connection between the gingiva and hard tooth tissues.

► Recommend toothpaste from periodontal disease

Toothpaste refers to the means of prevention but cure have arisen and progressive disease with it will not succeed. More important is proper and regular brushing teeth than toothpaste a particular company.

For bare necks there is increased sensitivity of teeth, so it is customary to use paste, which comes desensitizer – a substance that protects teeth from hypersensitivity. Examples: Sensodine and Colgate Pro-Relief sensitive.

► Is it possible to cure the disease forever?

Unfortunately, a complete cure cannot be achieved, as it is not fully understood the causes of periodontal disease. The adherence, and comprehensive treatment and thorough care of the oral cavity are able to stop the destruction of bone tissue and transfer process at the stage of stabilization.

► Contagious?

To judge the infectiousness of the disease can by how it is transmitted. Periodontal disease is a disease with a predominance of atrophic and destructive processes that has the infectious agent. The disease is spread parenterally and contact ways, therefore, does not apply to contagious diseases.

► Is it possible to do dental work?

The question of whether subthalamic designs decided by the doctor after intraoral inspection, study of the radiographs of the jaws and receiving data on the health status. Depending on the obtained results is the choice of a particular design.

The total destruction of the bone, accompanied by loss of teeth, it is best to make removable dentures because they do not give heavy load on the periodontium. If the choice is made in the direction of the bridges, there is a risk that soon there will be a loosening of the abutment teeth.

► Is it possible to put implants in periodontitis?

To make the operation of implantation, when bone destruction is not recommended, as there is a risk of rejection of the implant (periimplantitis). In any case, the decision is made by the doctor in each specific case and depends on the overall picture of the health of the patient.

► Lose teeth from periodontal disease, advise me what to do?

First need to go to the dentist, he will determine the stage and nature of the disease, and then selected the appropriate treatment strategy. Thorough teeth cleaning and timely removal of the deposits is also a good preventive measure.

Missing teeth are replaced with prosthetic. To delay the removal of mobile teeth, in some cases shown splinting. The procedure is the fixation and the clutch teeth movable with one another in a single monoblock with glass-fibre tape and composite material. Before carrying out such treatment the dentist is definitely examining the x-rays and decides on the advisability of the procedure.

► What kind of doctor treats

If you suspect periodontal disease should consult a periodontist. If there is no opportunity to visit the highly qualified specialist, the dentist will examine and prescribe additional tests.

► Code for ICD-10

According to the international classification of diseases — К05.4 «gum disease».