Periodontia (hyperdontia): anomaly supernumerary teeth
Anomaly supernumerary teeth or periodontia (hyperdontia) is not as rare as it might seem at first glance. According dentists suffers from it from 4 to 7 percent of the population of the planet.
This anomaly may cause serious inconvenience: problems with diction, bite and meal. In this article we will explain what is periodontia, name the main reasons of its occurrence and describe the symptoms and diagnosis of the disease.
Periodontia – what is it?
Periodontia is the appearance of a tooth row of a person an excessive number of teeth. From this disease affects mostly men, though among women the pathology to happen, often this disease appears in babies. A child is born with a tooth, but the rest of the tooth germ is also in place, in this case, parents are advised to get rid of the «extra» tooth in a child.
Excessive number of teeth in humans is not uncommon. As a rule, grows only one additional tooth, but there are two (about ¼ of all cases of periodontia), three or more. It should be noted that the third molars («wisdom teeth») should not be attributed to cases of periodontia, even though they appear not at all.
Why may occur anomaly, supernumerary teeth? There are several reasons:
- pathology of dental germs — such processes are developing when the fetus is in the womb. This happens because of failures in her system, which may be associated with adverse factors (e.g., ecology). According to scientists, the tooth Bud grows into several parts, which ultimately leads to abnormalities in the child;
- failures in the genetic code — it is believed that the first people had four, and six incisors in each jaw. Scientists attribute this to the fact that in primitive times people ate no processed meat food, it required a large number of teeth, whose function is nibble pieces of food. Over time through evolution, the human body no longer need in such quantity of cutters. The occurrence of extra teeth in some people in our time, according to experts, is connected with the rest of the elements of the genetic code of ancient humans, but this is just a hypothesis.
However, the exact answer for the cause of this illness is not. The above reasons are just the most likely of the proposed science. Thus, the etiology of this disease remains quite mysterious.
The disease is characterized by several, very obvious symptoms, they can be divided into children and adults. For polydentia in an adult, characterized by the following signs:
- the appearance of «extra» teeth on the palate and gums, they can be distorted shape and structure;
- impaired and bite;
- problems with the usual arrangement of teeth: they can be rotated to the side, very close to each other. This is due to vkladyvanii in tooth number supernumerary teeth;
- problem with chewing of food, which lead to disorders of the digestive system;
- frequent inflammation of the mucous membranes in the mouth, which occur due to damage of supernumerary teeth.
Supernumerary teeth in children appear in the first few months of their life or just the appearance. In this case, characterized by the following symptoms:
- difficulties with eating — the child is not okay to breastfeed young mother is also suffering because of the constant bites from the toddler;
- digestive disorders that are a consequence of failures in the meal;
- violation of salivation and swelling of the nasal mucosa;
- the increase in temperature and swelling in the area of eruption of the tooth.
Despite the speech problems that can occur in a child over time, and other complications caused by polydentia, most painfully, the child perceives the ridicule from peers, it can cause serious psychological trauma. Children begin to smile less, to not show the anomaly once again, especially when communicating with strangers or peers. After a few years of this trend can develop into isolation and a sense of inferiority.
There are several types of anomalies supernumerary teeth. The classification is based on the location and type of «extra» teeth. So, experts identify: typical and atypical periodontium, the true and the false.
- The typical form is characterized by the location of supernumerary teeth within the dentition. Sometimes they are very difficult to distinguish from ordinary and often they look like fangs. In this case, the teeth are very tightly pressed against each other.
- Atypical periodontia – supernumerary teeth grow out of the aisles of the dentition, they can appear in the sky and in other places. In unique cases, can erupt outside the mouth.
- Real periodontia featuring a classic cut and shape of supernumerary teeth. Their appearance do not go over the boundaries of the dentition.
- For about the form of the disease characterized by the increase in the number of teeth in an adult due to incomplete loss of milk teeth. The latter can remain in the tooth row for many decades after the alleged time of their loss. It happens that the presence of such supernumerary teeth does not even interfere with occlusion and does not cause any other forms of discomfort. Another symptom of false forms are fused between the teeth.
- Impacted supernumerary teeth — they don’t grow outward, but remain under the covering tissues of the mouth. As a rule, patients do not feel any discomfort, and find them only during a thorough examination or treatment of other teeth.
For more details on this issue we invite you to see the color pictures of the oral cavity of patients with the anomaly.
Diagnosis does not cause any problems in almost all forms. As a rule, the patients themselves reported about this disease, it’s not so difficult to notice that you have an extra tooth, especially if its growth causes serious problems with diction and bite.
If you have a place impacted supernumerary teeth, the most appropriate method of diagnosis is an x-ray. In this case, it is easy to determine where and how much you have extra teeth.
If x-ray it is impossible to establish the exact location of the problem tooth, the doctor may order a CT scan. Early diagnosis of the disease will not allow her to develop and to cause serious inconvenience.
How to treat periodontia?
There are two basic methods of treatment removal of bad teeth and orthodontic activities. The removal of particular difficulties experienced dentists. At the same time to remove not only additional teeth, but those who too have been negatively affected by previous growth.
In children (milk) dentition is necessary to remove all the unnecessary elements of the tooth-jaw structure, or may be pathological changes not only bite, but also the shape of the face. Removal of supernumerary teeth is as follows:
- Conducted x-rays of the teeth-jaw system for accurate determination of the location of the problem tooth and all the nuances associated with its growth (can be taken by computed tomography).
- The patient receives local anesthesia (in particularly difficult cases, the doctor may recommend General anesthesia).
- The tooth element is removed. If an impacted tooth, the doctor reveals the surface of the gums, usually by the tongue, and carve a crown and root of this tooth.
- If operating cuts impressive size or complex nature, the specialist may put a few stitches.
After surgery, the patient needs rehab, she is taking medication prescribed by a doctor and a temporary waiver from certain types of food (too spicy or hot) and bad habits.
► How much is the removal of supernumerary teeth? It depends on the complexity of the operation, and many related factors (e.g., cost of anesthesia, examinations, consultations). The price may vary in the range from 2 to 20 thousand roubles.
Extra teeth removed is not always as supernumerary tooth sometimes superior in many ways healthy, which is located near it. In this case corrupted to «correct» the tooth is removed, and the dichotomy begins to perform its functions.
If it doesn’t fit into the structure of the dentition of a person, the doctor may recommend methods of correcting orthodontic problems. Installation of special splints and braces will not only introduce an additional tooth in the dentition, but also correct other problems with the bite.
Video: world record periodontia — 232 tooth.