Periodontitis: symptoms, treatment, causes, photos

In addition to dental disease, there are other threat oral pathology. One of the most common is periodontitis. Describe know the symptoms and treatment of the problem and its causes and show photos of the various forms and stages.

Dentists believe that the disease is suffering 90% of the world population. However, not everyone pays attention to it, makes the treatment, thereby exposing healthy teeth risk of loss and the development of other serious consequences.

Periodontitis – what is it?

This tissue, like the periodontal surrounds the tooth root and holds it securely in the hole. This is a complex of fibers, channels, vessels which provide nutrition and protection more solid fabrics. In the presence of the source of infection that leads to inflammation of these joints – periodontitis.

But the history of the disease is gradual in nature, will give a detailed description. The presence of pathogenic bacteria, which are collected in dental plaque and stone, contribute to inflammation of the gums, superficial tissues. This problem is called gingivitis. Thus there is bleeding and some discomfort.

In the future, if not to stop the process, the bacteria spread more and more there are gaps between the teeth, forming periodontal pockets and easy access for infection to the roots. To clean such education is becoming increasingly difficult, and the bacteria multiply with a vengeance.

If you neglect this process, in addition to bleeding may be pus, periodontitis is increasingly lagging behind the roots of the teeth and they begin to unravel. If you do not treat periodontitis, it will lead to the loss of even a healthy and strong units. In addition, there will be many other issues that will bring a lot of trouble man.

If you leave such without attention, then comes the next stage of the disease called periodontitis. When this infection affects the alveolar processes, and eventually bone tissue.

It is believed that periodontal disease most often affects people aged from 30 to 40 years, as well as a group of persons 16-20 years old. But a particularly strong dependence if it is not, so to monitor the oral health everyone needs, because this pathology can appear in people of other age groups, in the presence of certain factors.


If you are wondering why the periodontitis, the answer is quite simple – from pathogenic bacteria contributing to the infection. This is the most common cause of this disease. However, when the study of the etiology of periodontitis, the dentists there are the following factors more or less contribute to its occurrence:

  • the presence of non treated or the running of gingivitis;
  • some diseases of a General nature that affect the immune system – diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, problems with poczekaj, etc.;
  • malocclusion or tooth position;
  • hypertonicity of the jaw muscles;
  • mechanical damage, trauma of the mucosa;
  • poor quality materials used for prosthetic or filling;
  • intoxication by some drugs, for example, arsenic or formaldehyde;
  • constant stress;
  • bad habits – Smoking, especially chewing tobacco;
  • not remove plaque;
  • problems hormones, as in pregnancy;
  • the gradual depletion of bone tissue that occurs because of refusal of firm food;
  • low immunity, what causes malnutrition and lack of vitamins;
  • violations in the process of daily hygiene (brush too hard, the rarity of the procedures, wrong movement(how to brush your teeth?));
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal factors affecting acidity;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • running dental infection in which it spreads to surrounding tissue.


Symptoms and complications

Manifestations and signs of this disease largely depend on the degree of neglect of the problem, location, the prevalence and specific varieties. You may experience the following symptoms:

  • bad breath;
  • bleeding gums;
  • yellow tinge on the basal part of the enamel;
  • inflamed areas of the mucosa that stained it in a more vivid hue;
  • the appearance of periodontal pockets, gaps between the teeth and mucosa;
  • purulent discharge in such entities;
  • hypersensitivity of the enamel;
  • pain when chewing or during hygiene procedures;
  • violations of the appearance of the interdental partitions;
  • the appearance of gaps between units.
  • exposure of roots;
  • the loss of healthy teeth in the most difficult cases;
  • increased viscosity of saliva;
  • pulsating sensation in the gums;
  • increase and inflamed lymph nodes in the submandibular area.

Sometimes the disease leads to exacerbations and complications that appears on the body. There is a headache, temperature, weakness.

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The types of periodontitis are different and intensity of symptoms, their severity, pain, complications and consequences. In each case, the physician should prescribe the form and extent of the disease, in order to properly prescribe treatment.

► Way pathology can be identified:

  1. The acute form, which the rapidity of infection of tissue in a short period can lead to serious manifestations. Bleeding and pain, early onset of abscesses or even fistulas can appear literally for 1-2 months. It is quite an aggressive form of periodontitis, which is impossible to ignore.
  2. Chronic, when symptoms are not particularly pronounced, and the flow sluggish. In this case, the disease may not cause great suffering to man, but the defeat and destruction of the tissue still occurs.

Characterized by the fact that when rapidly progressive form of periodontitis patient as interested in getting professional help to ease symptoms. In chronic phase, easily start the disease and bring it to more serious pathologies, to cure which it will be extremely difficult.

► If you talk about the location of the infection and its prevalence in the oral cavity, it is necessary to distinguish between:

  1. Localized or focal option. It occurs most often from mechanical damage to any small section of soft tissues. To cure it quickly and easily.
  2. Generalized – widely distributed around the periodontal area. This variant of the disease is characteristic for bacterial infections and low immunity of a person when the body can’t fight off the active growth of pathogenic bacteria.

► The severity of periodontal disease leads to a variety of lesions, and the longer you ignore the disease, the harder it will be symptoms and treatment:

  1. Easy stage when pathology is not taking serious forms. The patient often only pay attention to bleeding gums and some discomfort during brushing. This initial stage involves the appearance of periodontal pockets the minimum size to 3 mm, and the destruction of bone tissue not more than the third part of the root of the unit.
  2. Medium severity is characterized by wide gaps in the pockets that reach 6 mm and the destruction of root coverage affects half its size. In addition to bleeding and pain, you can start to loose teeth. Doctors say the presence of sclerosis of the stroma and granular tissue.
  3. Severe disease is manifested by the rapid deformation of the interdental partitions, collapse of the collagen fibers, destruction of the greater part of the root tissues. Periodontal pockets become particularly voluminous – more than 6 mm. Remnants of food, which penetrate into them, quickly lead to purulent processes, and the teeth can start to fall out.

It should be noted that even with combined treatment and the good results fully restore the damaged tissue will be almost impossible, especially if the disease has reached severe forms.

In addition to this classification, doctors allocate abscessed, marginal and necrotizing periodontitis. For the most part it’s just a complex manifestation of advanced forms of the disease, which are particularly pronounced symptoms.

So, abscessed option indicates abundant purulent discharge, necrotizing speaks of the death of tissue, and marginal is only a localized surface primary form of periodontitis.


At the first signs of gingivitis you should consult a doctor and upon inspection he will be able to smell a dangerous disease. For detailed clarification and differential diagnosis, in which one pathology for the symptoms differs from another, performs the following manipulations:

  • going to the anamnesis, complaints of the patient;
  • the doctor examines the oral cavity and note visible changes;
  • so the title is set to the index of bleeding;
  • is reproduktory;
  • the patient is sent for x-ray diagnostics;
  • make a General analysis of blood and urine;
  • establish periodontal index.

All these methods are designed precisely to establish the diagnosis and assist in medical appointments, which will most effectively resolve the infection and return the patient to normal life.

How to treat periodontal disease?

Dentists say that even a severe form of the disease can be cured. The only thing to restore the integrity of damaged tissues will be difficult. Therefore, it is desirable to bring the matter to periodontitis and to eliminate any inflammation of the mucosa in the early stages of the disease. To eliminate all the symptoms of inflammation used the following methods:

  • medicines, local and General;
  • surgery;
  • orthopedic correction;
  • physical therapy;
  • hardware ways.
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Consider each option in more detail. In addition, they have a cleansing and restorative procedure. It is obvious that the use of all these methods of healing can be shared, because together they will work faster and better. And it is important how focused and professional manipulation of the doctor and the efforts of the patient.

In the treatment with the help of drugs, use of antibiotics for the complete destruction of the infection and disinfection of tissues and a tonic, raises immunity and strengthen the natural protective functions of the organism.

Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics in different forms. This local injection or application, and tablet, used inside. However, some dentists argue that the injections in the gums of such drugs adversely affect the structure of the tissues, so use them rarely. Among the popular tools in this group can be called Ceftriaxone and Lincomycin.

To promote health and improve immunity of the person he designate a General multivitamin and mineral supplements, correct diet and prescribe special drugs that stimulate the immune system, for example, Immudon.

In local treatment of periodontitis popular application, rinsing, and various ointments or gels. Which ones will be most effective in each case only solves the attending physician. Among rinse worth mentioning local antiseptics such as Chlorhexidine and Maraslavin who are able to thoroughly disinfect the surface of the teeth and gums, as well as to wash the bacteria out of periodontal pockets open.

From gels and ointments in dentistry not bad himself showed scars, Olasal, Levomekol, Holisal-gel Metrogyl-Denta. They help to reduce pain, relieve inflammation of tissues and normalize the microflora of the cavity. How to use them will tell the doctor.

If the cause of the pathology was the lack of dental units or malocclusion, this issue should be solved by the orthodontist. In this case, in addition to the immediate treatment is the installation of braces, dentures or implants. In order to avoid such problems due to malocclusion, it is better to adjust it even in children, when to make it a lot easier.

Among physiotherapeutic techniques in dentistry, ultrasonic waves are used, electrophoresis, darsonvalization, UHF-therapy, aerosol therapy, diathermocoagulation, balneotherapy, massage gums, phototherapy, pelotherapy, and others. Their peculiarity is that they are rarely used independently. This is usually part of the overall strengthening and recovery process in combination with surgical and other methods.

The most radical way of healing, to which resort has a moderate or severe stage of the disease, surgical intervention is considered. And the more open and infected periodontal pockets, the higher will be the data manipulation. Among the used methods there are:

  1. Bone grafting, when she destroyed more than half and in need of significant restoration.
  2. Splinting of teeth that can occur in different ways. Is the use of horizontal and fiberglass tape, installing soldered together crowns, and partial denture metal-based. The purpose of this method is the retention of the dental units in the wells to prevent hair loss.
  3. Gingivoplasty involves cleaning open pockets, their treatment with an antiseptic and special protective substances of the dental roots. In the last step updates the epithelium and the transplanted bone tissue if necessary. Thus, there is not only treatment, but also the aesthetic restoration of the mucosa.
  4. Gingivectomy is a special operation used in small damage and easy opening of the periodontal pockets. The doctor cleans them, removes the inflamed incision and handles special antiseptics. This method is useful when the localized form of the disease.
  5. More complex, but similar to the previous – graft operation. In addition to cleansing, solidifies gum and hiding roots. Those parts of the mucous membrane, which initially cut, then fit and back seam. Whence the name of the procedure.

Modern, almost painless, safe and effective are hardware methods of treatment of periodontitis. And though their price may be higher, in some cases it is almost the only way to restore the health of the soft tissues. We list the most popular among them:

  • Ultrasound, which can clean periodontal pockets and to eliminate even the subgingival stone. Depth of its impact is quite strong. But the disadvantage of this method is considered to be chaotic beating of the waves, which sometimes leads to the destruction of healthy tissue nearby.
  • A more advanced version of the previous method the Vector. It also uses ultrasound, but its effect is more tidy and focused. In addition to the destruction of the plaque, stone, cleansing from bacteria, it is able to flush out endotoxins and heal gums. This uses a substance called gidroksiapatit. Also, the unit Vector is able to Polish the tooth surface that will give a smile and aesthetic appearance after treatment. The procedure is less painful than surgery, and lasts from 30 minutes to two hours.
  • The most successful in many fields of medicine for the treatment and removal of abnormal tissue is laser. He is able to quickly eliminate bacteria, very precise and without blood, to cut off unwanted areas and to facilitate the subsequent rehabilitation period. Laser treatment is painless, requires no anesthesia, reduces the risk of inflammation.
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Treatment of periodontitis folk remedies

In addition to these medical manipulations, the patient can independently at home to use the following methods:

  • Take in equal parts sea buckthorn and fir. Soaking them in a small piece of gauze, gently massage the gums for 10 minutes. Doing so twice a day can greatly reduce inflammation and eliminate General infection of the tissues.
  • Taking the same number of calendula flowers and limes, fill with boiling water. One tablespoon of plants take a glass of water. This means you need to push at least 25 minutes, then drain and rinse 3-4 times a day.
  • Well-proven oak bark in the treatment of inflammation of the gums. Chopped it and typing 1 teaspoon pour a glass of boiling water and cook on a medium heat. Further infuse the broth to half an hour. Strain the tool, use it to rinse every two hours.
  • Take 1 tbsp. l. dried roots okopnika. Pour them a glass of water and bring to a boil over medium heat. Giving to infuse the tool and half an hour, strain it, use as a mouthwash for gum.

It is worth remembering that any even of traditional medicine it should be used only after consultation with your doctor.

Video: periodontitis — how not to remain without teeth in 30 years?

Preventive measures

To avoid such serious problems with soft tissues, it is best to stick with simple and affordable prevention options. Dentists recommend:

  • brush your teeth every day with a brush of medium hardness, in a circular motion for at least five minutes;
  • time to treat any diseases and to eliminate the first symptoms;
  • to avoid stressful situations;
  • fully fed and to strengthen the immune system;
  • don’t forget about the importance of solid products that stimulate the metabolic processes in the gums and naturally clean the surface from plaque;
  • do not run the disease of a General nature;
  • at loss of even one unit, to set the prosthesis;
  • every six months to visit a dental office for a thorough examination and detect early signs of any abnormalities, as well as to professional cleaning of plaque and Tartar;
  • lead a healthy lifestyle and refrain from unhealthy habits;
  • be careful not to damage the soft tissues with sharp objects, avoid traumatic situations;
  • upon detection of malocclusion in childhood his best to fix it.

In addition to these General tips for maintaining the health and compliance with quality hygiene of the oral cavity in addition to periodically massage the gums. To do this with clean fingers make a light pressure on both sides. It’s easy, and the whole procedure lasts no longer than 5-10 minutes. In the result of metabolic processes in periodontal tissues will resist the growth of bacteria.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

In the International classification of diseases, this problem is code К05.2, if you talk about the acute form, and К05.3 in the case of chronic leakage. This pathology is the section on gingivitis and periodontal diseases.

► What is the difference between periodontitis and periodontal disease?

A detailed answer to this question can be read in our article.