Periodontitis treatment: causes, signs, symptoms
Periodontitis – a disease whose treatment is the option of an integrated approach of various specialists-dentists. This process has inflammatory manifestations and noted in the tissues surrounding the tooth. The process is dangerous because if no intervention occurs by the progressive dissolution of bone and the tearing of the fibers of the periodontal tissues. In the untimely appeal to the doctor, the high probability to remain without teeth for both children and adults.
The periodontium is a complex tissue within the tooth. He is represented by the tooth, the gum, the periodontal ligament and the alveolus bone. What is periodontitis and how can it be caused by?Nearly 100% of causes of periodontitis presented microbial flora, is actively being produced with poor oral hygiene. In the absence of proper care is gradually on the teeth forms a thin film which might, over time, begins to obyzvestvleniya, turning into plaque. Gradually, using minerals from saliva, food components, plaque begins to ossify, turning into Tartar. The topographic position of the stones can be above and under the gum. The stones press on the gum, thereby contributing to the progressive appearance of inflammation.
Periodontal disease can be caused and other reasons. The acute form of the disease associated with exposure to chemicals (the influence of substances), physical (burns) and mechanical (injury) agents. Acute periodontitis may be a complication of acute ulcerative-necrotic gingivitis.
With regard to chronic forms of the disease. They can be due to several reasons:
- Incorrect therapeutic intervention: overhanging edges of seals, systematically otlavlivayutsya gingival margin;
- Carious cavities on the contact side of the tooth;
- Prosthetics in violation of the manufacturing processes and plants: broad crowns, wrong made removable and the removable device.
In the result of inadequately performed therapy can appear supercontact. The load transmitted to the tooth, not equally distributed, leading to strain on periodontal tissues.
What are the symptoms of periodontitis
The main symptoms of periodontitis:
- Redness and pain in the gums;
- Bleeding from gums when brushing teeth;
- The deposition of soft and hard over — and subgingival dental plaque;
- An unpleasant odor;
- Increasing the sensitivity of the tooth to hot, cold, sour, sweet and otherwise;
- Allocation of pus from cavities;
- Increasing tooth mobility.
At the initial stage of the development of periodontitis are similar to gingivitis. Therefore, to understand what tactics to choose the treatment, you must understand the types of illness.
Periodontitis, what is it? Periodontitis is a disease classification which is carried out in stages, the proliferation, the extent of damage.
Process stages: acute and chronic. Acute periodontitis occurs as a response to acute injury due to damage of the periodontal connection with deep promotion of artificial crowns, in contact with filling material in maisonny period, etc. In timely treatment of this form can be cured quickly. The chronic form caused by regular exposure to a pathological factor for a long time. According to the degree distribution: localized and generalized. When the local topography of the process lesion is noted within one or several teeth within the same segment. Generalized violation is observed on one or both jaws.
The extent of damage are light, medium and heavy focus. Lesions typical of gingivitis begin to worsen. Inflammation of the gums increases, the gum recedes from the tooth and is caused thereby deepening periodontal. Starts the deposition of supra — and subgingival soft and hard deposits on the teeth. Receive the initial destruction of bone. In the touch of gums appears to bleeding. There is bad breath. The average severity of the lesion along with these manifestations is added to the loosening of the teeth and destruction of bone to ½ of the root. Heavy severity: the tooth is held by the elite, the destruction of up to ¾ the length of the root. Observed profuse discharge of pus. In the segment of the jaws can mark the fan-shaped divergence.
Diagnosis of periodontitis and the causes of
At the initial stage, the physician clarifies the patient’s complaints, anamnesis of disease and life. This is followed by an examination of the oral cavity. It is necessary to evaluate hygiene, availability of sediment, the condition of the gums, carious lesions or other solid structures and mucous. The depth of the gingival recesses evaluate periodontal probe. It is noted the condition of each tooth defects, pockets, condition of the gums. Data is written in periodontograph.
X-ray method is the main method for determining the resorption of the jaw bone. Apply sighting the radiograph or a panoramic shot (reflects the structure of the upper and lower jaws, with the capture of TMJ). Radiovisiography helps to assess the severity of the disease. On the radiograph to assess the defects of periodontal tissue: periodontal expansion cracks, the depth of bone destruction, presence of pathological formations.
And elektrodinamicheskoi conducted a study to identify the viability of the teeth. This is done to choose an effective method in the treatment of periodontitis. If necessary, carry out the analysis of blood, urine. If there is pathology other body systems, then sent for consultation to allied professionals.
Periodontitis and methods of treatment
How to treat periodontal disease? Treatment of periodontitis is carried out in correlation to the degree of severity of the process. It is necessary to conduct a comprehensive treatment, combining local and General therapy. The effectiveness of treatment is enhanced when an individual comprehensive treatment plan that takes into account the type, testsepilepsy and General condition.
Manipulation in terms of reception at the dentist
Is there a cure for periodontal disease? Think about it a lot. At the initial stage, in identifying patient signs of inflammation of periodontal tissues, it is necessary to consult specialized doctor in that area: by a periodontist. After taking a history and conducting of manipulations, allowing to clarify the inflammatory nature of periodontal structures, the doctor formulates a plan of intervention and defines the methods of treatment of periodontitis . When mild manifestations may need a consultation by a periodontist. However, in the presence of pathology of occlusion, lack of teeth in the row will need assistance and allied professionals. Before the intervention, periodontal focus to resolve the issue on preservation of the teeth, prosthetics. Define an overall plan of treatment, which is agreed with the patient. Negotiated the cost of each manipulation. And finally, is denoted by the sequence of application of methods and means for influencing the inflammation in the periodontium and the patient’s body.
Treatment of periodontitis typically performed by a physician, as a specialist periodontist is not present in any clinic. Begin therapy with a professional cleaning: perform the removal of hard and soft supra — and subgingival dental deposits with hand instruments, ultrasonics, sandblasting machine, using polishing brushes with paste. The doctor then conducts training in oral hygiene with the use of a plaster cast of the jaw. Selects the primary and secondary means to care, learn to floss and explains in detail to the patient how to cure periodontitis.
Next, selected anti-inflammatory treatment, relieving the main symptoms of periodontitis: swelling, pain, bleeding, suppuration. This approach to treatment is able to block mass multiplication of microbial flora in periodontal cavities, contributing to the subsidence of the process.
Rehabilitation of the oral cavity before orthopedic intervention
All manipulations must be observed on the basis of the treatment plan. After removing the inflammation and strengthen the result of medicamentous and physiotherapeutic remedies to resolve the issue with the teeth. Therapy is aimed at treatment of caries and its complications, extraction.
And you must also run deponirovanie with the following modifications:
- Bone loss more than ½ the length of the root;
- Marked gingival grooves, for 2/3 length of the root.
Such manipulations must be performed in mind in order to eliminate the introduction of infection into the tooth body. Treatment of periodontitis depends on the clinical picture. Carry out surgery, splinting with fiberglass, fabrication of temporary and permanent fixed and removable prosthetic, the electoral selective abrasion of the teeth.
Splinting performed with the mobility of the tooth in two and three dimensions. For the fixation and normalization of the functional peculiarities of periodontal tissues. Over time, when properly performed, splinting, mobility will decrease.
Surgical techniques are essential in the treatment of periodontal disease. Their goal is to eliminate the periodontal pocket, removing the source of infection, suspend the progression of bone destruction of the alveolar bone. Should be removed from under the gums inflammatory granulation emerged in place of the solution of the bone, and present in the periodontal recesses. In conclusion, you need to implanting the synthetic bone material.
Medication and physiotherapy treatment
The doctor, noting the symptoms and treatment of, and appointed, will be based on General and local effects of drugs.
- Rinsing with antiseptic solutions;
- Irrigation of periodontal recesses antiseptic preparations;
- Treatment of the gums with periodontitis applying bandages with antimicrobial and antiseptic effects, carried out twice a day (morning and evening);
- The total length of the procedure 10 days.
In addition to the effects of drugs on the periodontium using physiotherapy techniques. The use of laser, electrophoresis and other devices can only accelerate the recovery of tissues, but not completely cure.
In home use special toothpaste. The doctor selects a patient hygiene products, according to its state of the gums. The paste needs to be ingredients that help to relieve inflammation and strengthen gums (Parodontax, Lacalut).
The General therapy is indicated by a prescribing antibacterial action. In the correlation of the severity of the process and the presence of concomitant diseases should be used in the form of tablets or injections. Therapy is held at least 10 days.
Orthopedic stage acts at the end of the treatment of periodontitis. Patients with periodontitis should :properly distribute the occlusal load among the remaining teeth, to eliminate the increased load resulting from loss of teeth or change their position, to create the entire dentition is lost morphological and functional unity, connecting the individual links of the masticatory apparatus in a single system. If the planned intervention of the surgeon, it is necessary to perform the procedure to prepare a temporary prosthesis. Its main function will perform the unloading weakened tissue after the extraction.
Many people want to cure gum disease using inexpensive means at home. Undoubtedly, in the treatment of diseases of periodontal disease to a greater extent here is the effect «placebo», the intensity due to the shortage of time a patient on a visit to the dentist or reluctance to spend money on treatment, or a combination of these features. Anyway, the rinse solutions of chamomile, calendula and other medicinal products or feed additives periodontal recesses of various compounds and substances of the utmost give a deodorizing effect, and over time can aggravate the clinical situation.
Prevention of the disease periodontitis before treatment
Prevention of periodontal disease what is it? Methods for the prevention of periodontitis of the tooth can be classified into three groups of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary activities are aimed at identifying etiological elements contributing to the emergence of inflammation. Assessed the level of immune protection, and actions to strengthen it.
Secondary prevention is indicated in a number of manipulations aimed at the evaluation of diseases of organs of oral cavity and their treatment. To block the occurrence of complications of periodontitis refers to measures of tertiary prevention, and includes a complex of therapeutic measures. However, to avoid the need for manipulation of all of these groups need to follow some rules:
- To carry out hygienic measures in the mouth with the use of basic and incremental hygiene;
- Planning to visit a dentist to identify the extraction of plaque and stones;
- The diet mainly consume solid foods: vegetables and fruits.