Periodontitis: what is it, structure, functions, classification of diseases

In addition to the teeth in the mouth are other fabrics that require special care, and can be a lot of trouble to its owner. For example, periodontitis is often exposed to pathogenic bacteria. What it is, its structure and functions, as well as the classification of diseases will be discussed in this article.

All the tissues that create the oral cavity of the person, from the gums to the teeth have by nature a complex structure and is very closely related. On the one hand, it helps to maintain good dental health to withstand a high chewing load. On the other hand promotes inflammation and ease their transition to the other tissue.

What is it?

In dentistry there is a single science – periodontics. It deals with the study of periodontal diseases and their related complications. In a simple sense is the periodontal tissue adjacent to the roots, feeding, protecting, and performing other important functions in their life.

Due to the close proximity and the close interaction of inflammation with teeth are easily transferred to the periodontium and Vice versa. Therefore, it is important to adhere to the rules of oral hygiene, and promptly treat any diseases before they spread to a wider part.

The structure of the periodontium

In medicine, the concept includes a complex of tissues which form a space around the tooth, so often it shall include the entire composition of the dental tissue.

Because of complex structure and features of the structure suggest a close relationship, then we consider all of the following components in a single whole. Also this contributes to their common blood supply.

To understand the structure of the tooth and periodontium, you need to know about anatomical shaping and natural connection. So, the basis of this tissue is composed of ectodermal epithelium and mesenchyme. From the first formed lip and the tooth plate, in which there kolpophobia growths as a place for each future unit. The second is converted into a special papillae and, subsequently, to the pulp and dentin.

All together these fabrics create a so-called dental SAC is formed in which the root is covered with cement and thus ligaments with bone-based. List what tissues of the teeth are part of the periodontium:

  1. The periodontium is between the alveolar wall and the cement covering the root. This is a complex of fibers that attach each tooth in the hole. Here are the lymphatic vessels, arteries, veins, nerve fibers that nourishes the living tissue and is responsible for normal metabolism.
  2. Desna is the exterior of the entire structure. She first takes the brunt of the disease-causing bacteria, and the first to respond to any impact. Itself covered with epithelium, which has an incredibly high regenerative properties.
  3. Alveolar bone is a spongy bone plate, that are used for tooth bed. In these formations there are also enough blood vessels and nerves, completely penetrating the entire structure.
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In addition to these tissues, in their joint activity deals and other bone elements, which directly interact with the periodontium:

  • The cement covers the root of the tooth and protects it.
  • Enamel is a stronger fabric surface, it surrounds the crown part and is the most solid in the whole structure.
  • Dentine – the inner substance that fills each unit that surrounds the pulp and is composed mainly of inorganic mineral components.
  • Pulp – the «heart» of the tooth, which is the main source of metabolism in it contains bundle of nerve endings and blood vessels.

All mentioned innervation of tissues is due to the trigeminal nerve, which is divided into numerous plexuses, ending in each tooth unit. Most of them have roots.

And for the blood supply of the periodontium answer maxillary artery. The better the permeability of the capillaries, the more resistant the tissue to be pathogenic stresses. In such protective activities plays a significant role and the lymphatic system.

Its functions

Proceeding from the listed components of tooth structure and soft tissue and of the nervous and circulatory systems, it is possible to assume the presence of the following features, which bears the periodontium in a healthy condition:

  • Reference – this is the main task – to keep the tooth in place between the bone plates, regardless of the load of chewing.
  • Cushioning – helps to better distribute pressure and to balance the mechanical effect on the whole series.
  • Trophic is a nutritious activity that is provided by a whole complex of nerve, blood and lymphatic vessels.
  • Protective – a lot of cells, channels, tissues and other entities to maximally contribute to the creation of the barrier. Starting from the epithelium of the gingiva and ending with the composition of dentin, the major part of this complex structure tries to resist any aggressive action of bacteria, maintaining the health of the tooth and soft tissues.
  • Reflex also promotes proper chewing process.
  • Plastic is responsible for the regeneration and stretch ability of the fabric.
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Classification of periodontal diseases

This part of the masticatory apparatus first receives the blow of the bacteria, so the etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal disease are particularly important when studying it. Main reasons of arising problems are:

  • various diseases of internal organs, low immune system;
  • the appearance of dental plaque;
  • many harmful bacteria in the mouth;
  • the plaque and stone, which time has not removed;
  • traumatic overload;
  • pathology of dentition;
  • substandard materials in the filling or prosthesis;
  • individual characteristics and genetic susceptibility to these diseases;
  • frequent stress;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • bad habits, etc.

Even irregular oral hygiene can cause gum disease, no other serious reason. Themselves of periodontal diseases is not so much:

  1. Gingivitis is the initial inflammation, repair which can be very simple, if the time to seek help from a doctor. Occurs because of local and sometimes General adverse effects.
  2. Periodontitis – a more serious stage of the disease, leading to inflammation of the periodontal tissues and subsequent bone destruction.
  3. Periodontal disease – leads to its degeneration and denudation of the tooth roots. This is a pretty severe form of the disease, to treat you want for a long time and under strict medical supervision.
  4. Parodontose – the appearance of tumors in the soft tissues.
  5. Idiopathic forms, which include a number of abnormalities – neutropenia syndrome, Papillon-Lefevre, catilinaria, pesticidas, etc.


You can list the main methods of treatment of periodontal diseases, but this division is too arbitrary. Such a theoretical measure is needed only for scientific study. In reality, the actions are used to close the complex is to maximize successfully affect periodontal tissues and effectively restore his health:

  1. Physiotherapeutic influence.
  2. Surgical methods.
  3. Orthodontic correction.
  4. Antibiotics.

All this is included in conservative treatment and is a popular variation of the applied measures. However, in practice, it sounds much easier:

  • the removal of dental plaque and Tartar, professional cleaning surfaces;
  • rehabilitation and treatment of carious cavities;
  • the prevention or elimination of uneven load on the masticatory apparatus;
  • correction of orthopedic defects;
  • conducting splinting if necessary;
  • prosthetics quality materials, for example, installing a partial denture;
  • the treatment of common diseases;
  • antibacterial treatment of the oral cavity and acceptance of additional products;
  • enhanced immunity and health promotion;
  • regular hygiene procedures in compliance with all recommendations of dentists.
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Partly these methods applies a periodontist. The greater part of the procedures is the responsibility of the patient and compliance rules for a healthy lifestyle. It is useful to abandon bad habits and to normalize the power.

In the most severe cases it is necessary to resort to surgical intervention that will bring a lot of inconvenience and will entail discomfort during the rehabilitation period.

Video: what is periodontitis and what functions it performs?


Everyone knows that a much simpler, easier and cheaper to prevent any problem than to go through a complex and often painful treatment. Therefore, prevention of periodontal disease is almost the main goal in dentistry:

  • During pregnancy a woman should eat a healthy diet, to all the dental tissues that usually develop in the fetus during this period, were healthy.
  • The same approach to food should also be observed in childhood during the growth and formation of teeth.
  • Daily regular oral hygiene must follow all the rules, which constantly show the doctors.
  • Periodic professional treatment of surfaces to remove plaque and Tartar.
  • Regular dental visits to monitor the condition of periodontal tissues and teeth, and early detection of various pathologies.
  • Treatment of arising problems in the initial stages, without admitting unpleasant complications and a greater spread of inflammation.
  • Avoidance of various infections both General and local character.
  • Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, correct mode of work and rest.
  • The rejection of bad habits.
  • Timely correction of malocclusion, abnormal teeth alignment, and prosthetics in case of loss of some or all units.