Radicular cyst of the upper jaw: symptoms, treatment, surgery
The root of the cyst or gingival granuloma is a common problem today. Neglecting regular inspections, hygiene, tooth decay or periodontitis contribute to the development of cystic formations. The disease affects all segments of the population, regardless of gender, age. In fact no matter what occurs the jaw radicular cyst because the process of the emergence, treatment, and consequences develop on the same scenario. To eliminate the pathology, there are a number of advanced techniques that can completely eliminate the disease with absence of recurrences.
Radicular cyst as a disease
Cyst in Greek means «cavity», «bubble». In medicine, this bubble is often filled with blood, organic liquid or purulent exudate. The outer layer consists of a cystic component of soft connective tissues and the cavity is filled with epithelium. Diagnosis of radicular cysts is carried out in the upper segments of the jawbone. Detection of its signs in the lower jaw are very rare. At the beginning of the disease is in the latent stage, does not manifest itself. If detection occurs, as a rule, when the x-ray picture shows a completely different dental field. Size dentists there are two groups of cysts:
- cystogranulomas (about 0.5 cm);
- a cyst (more than 1 cm).
Radicular cysts of the jaws (upper or lower) — cavitary lesions in periapical region of the tooth with the cystic fluid resulting from the inflammatory process of periapical (root) part of the tooth. There are basic forms of the disease:
- acute process;
- a chronic form.
For a long period of growth of cysts can lead to gradual thinning or perforation of the jaw bone, which increases the risk of fracture of the jaw in the segment of the lesion. Radicular cysts often require surgical treatment, therefore, if you notice unpleasant symptoms attending physician is required for urgent reasons.
Etiology and predisposing factors
The appearance of a cystic component, the organism’s response to inflammation in the tooth. Cysts are formed in patients with a long history of carious destruction, when the lesion reaches the basal part of the tooth. But there are other disease or condition which can serve as a trigger to the formation of cavitary formations:
- chronic periodontitis;
- severe pulpitis;
- trauma to teeth and gums:
- transferred disease of an infectious nature;
- chronic stomatitis;
- inflammation of the maxillary sinuses;
- abnormal bite;
- catarrhal otitis.
- of the disease with severe immunosuppression;
- a complication during the eruption of the wisdom tooth.
Radicular cyst of the upper jaw bone is often formed under the influence of long-term untreated carious tooth. Sometimes the cause of radicular cysts in the upper jaw is the unprofessional treatment of dental caries, violation of the technology canal filling, the lack of competence of a specialist in the treatment of chronic forms of periodontitis. The lack of treatment of radicular cysts can lead to serious complication, not only from the oral and maxillofacial anatomical area, but also on the part of all organs and systems of the organism as a whole.
The clinical picture
The development of a cystic component can develop around the several years and did not manifest symptomatically. The emergence of unexpressed but unpleasant symptoms cyst treatment should be performed immediately, as treatment of a tumor after its significant expansion will be quite difficult. The growth of the cyst exerts strong pressure on the connective tissue around it, so its growth is rapid. In the pictures the cyst like a small spherical education. The main manifestations are:
- the emergence of a strong throbbing pain;
- swelling and redness of the gums in the affected area;
- the feeling of mobility of the tooth;
- feeling of fullness in the apical space;
- bad breath:
- long-term preservation of subfebrile body temperature.
The early cyst can be diagnosed on x-ray examination, and late stages of development already reveal during visual examination of the oral cavity of the patient. Usually the suspicion of the presence of cystic cavities is justified.
After the treatment of the patient to the dentist is assigned a scheduled supplementary examination, which will help to identify the cyst with a tooth in the upper jaw from other oral and maxillofacial tumors and pathological changes. Among the main should note the following:
- X-ray examination. On radiographs, the cyst is represented by a small oval or spherical shadow with a clear outline. The shadow placed on top of the tooth root closest to the sidewall. Periodontal gap in the picture is not displayed but is determined by extensive destruction of the bone structure in the affected area.
- Electrogoniometry. The method is used when no differentiation of radicular cyst x-ray picture. The threshold of excitability of the affected tooth varies from 90 to 120 µa. These figures correspond to the development of necrotic pulp.
- Puncture. Puncture with a thick needle is used to reliably exclude malignancy of cystic component. The contents of the cyst sent for Cytology.
Radicular cyst lower jaw bone is almost indistinguishable from the currents in the upper segments of the jaw. Often, radicular cyst is similar to osteoblastoma, but the main difference between the cysts is the lack of cellular structure and clear contours of shadows in a projection image. Differential diagnosis can reliably detect the disease and treat it in accordance with standard clinical practice.
The healing process
Treatment of cysts may be therapeutic (conservative) and operative method. The treatment is determined by a doctor after visual examination of the oral cavity and results of diagnostic studies.
Treatment a laser beam is gaining popularity in dentistry. Under the influence of laser the tumor can be removed completely painless, with no risks of infection. In addition, the laser disinfects the affected channels and provides fast recovery. Algorithm laser treatment looks like this:
- the opening and extension of dental root canals;
- the introduction of the laser beam in channels:
- decontamination and removal of the cystic component.
Of the disadvantages of the method can distinguish only the relative high cost and the need for special high-precision equipment. Laser treatment involves following the recommendations of a doctor immediately after the procedure (rinsing with antiseptic and abstinence from food to 5 hours).
Therapy cystic modified root of a tooth requires disinfection, cleaning of the tooth and its filling. An alternative method of treatment is the therapeutic introduction of a suspension with a content of copper and calcium with subsequent effects on tooth electrical discharges of low power. The main indications for drug therapy are:
- the lack of fillings in root channels;
- a bad seal in root canals (not the entire length);
- the size of the cyst is barely 8 mm.
Treatment using special drugs that negatively affect the capsule of the cyst and its contents. Then, completely remove the purulent exudate, but instead of the cyst cavity is injected dental paste for restoration of bone structure. Manipulation completed the root canal and crowns. Cases of relapse are possible.
Surgical treatment is carried out in a number of cases, since 80% of the radicular cyst is a running process. The main indications for surgical intervention are:
- the presence of the pin in the root canal;
- early prosthetic treatment of the causative tooth;
- the size of the cyst exceeds 8-8. 5 mm;
- swollen gums and soreness.
More recently, the cystic component was removed along with the tooth. Now are alternative methods of surgical treatment aimed at preserving the natural tooth. The tooth is removed only when the roots of the tooth become part of the cystic structure, or were destroyed by disease at the root.
Basic methods of surgical treatment:
|Cystectomy.||Is a complex, but removal of the cyst. The cavity is removed together with the damaged part of the root and sheath. Indications for surgery — the rapid development of the tumor in the upper jaw to the large size.|
|Cystotomy.||The procedure involves removing the anterior wall of the cystic cavity. The surgery is performed in severe destruction of bone the bottom of the nose, palatal plate, if the cyst is of large size. If cystotomy the longest recovery period.|
|Tooth.||The simplest method, involving removal of not only cysts, but also parts of the tooth root, the tooth is and whether it is part of his crown.|
Postoperative period can take a long time. For the entire period of recovery is required to make an antiseptic gargle, it is sometimes necessary to take antibiotics. You can’t take aspirin because it causes bleeding. A recovery time of about a day, and swelling and a little pain remain for a few days. The steady preservation of an unpleasant symptom or in the case of amplification of their intensity, it is important to immediately consult a doctor.
Traditional methods of treatment
We should also mention the possibility of treatment of the tumor of the apical part of the tooth of the upper jaw recipes of traditional healing. Infusions of herbs, compresses and poultices are well different when the patient is in the postoperative period. Herbal treatment when root tooth cyst only helps in the quality of local decontamination tools along with traditional methods of treatment. Identify the main herbs that heal gums faster:
- oak bark;
- fen cottonweed;
- plantain and others.
If you start treatment only herbs and poultices, it is possible not only to help your own body deal with the cyst, but can also lead to complications in the form of rupture of the cystic contents. Purulent exudate spreads quickly through the bloodstream and carries the entire bacterial flora to vital organs.
Complications and prevention
Complications after surgery are possible, if you do not comply with the special recommendations of the doctor. A common cause of complications is the lack of self-discipline of the patient. Major complications are:
- infection of the tissues during surgery;
- generalized sepsis;
- absatively syndrome around the affected tooth.
Rarely the cause of postoperative complications is the lack of professionalism of the dentist. Before treatment it is important to ask about the quality of services and a dental clinic. Of complications especially emphasizes the defeat of molars in the maxillary sinuses and sepsis. If the cyst removed not the whole amount of purulent exudate, the appearance of the secondary focus of infection occurs almost immediately. Pus rapidly spreads throughout the body and leads to dysfunction of many organs and systems. When the high-tech development of dentistry today, the occurrence of complications of treatment of the cyst constitute a single episode.
When conducting qualitative prevention the patient should follow the simple rules:
- regular hygienic cleaning of the teeth;
- rehabilitation of the mouth once a year;
- review dentist — 2 times per year;
- timely response to unpleasant symptoms in the mouth.
Treatment of cyst is carried out successfully today, in some cases, so before you visit a dentist, it is important to gather as much information as possible about the clinic and the professionalism of the expert. It is not necessary to delay treatment in severe cases and often the only possible way to remove the pathology becomes operation.
For fast postoperative recovery for the patient it is important to observe hygienic mode, to carry out preventive rinsing the mouth with decoction of herbs (chamomile, celandine, succession, propolis) and drugs (Miramistin, Yodinolom). The discipline of the patient and attention to their own health — the guarantee of health of the oral cavity and the possibility of treating any problems in the early stages the most gentle manner.