Submandibular lymphadenitis: causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Inflammation of the lymph nodes is typical for many diseases, including submandibular lymphadenitis. Its causes, symptoms of, treatment methods and prevention measures.

In the human body there are a few basic fluids, constantly circulating on receptacles and not mixed together: blood, lymph, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).

Causes of submandibular lymphadenitis

To begin with, what is it? Submandibular lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymph nodes located under the jaw, but why did it occur? The disease does not occur by itself, is one of the symptoms of any disease. In the human body there are several groups of lymph nodes are responsible for certain areas of the body.

The submandibular lymph nodes (sometimes called neck) are responsible for processing the lymph of the head and directly the oral cavity. For processing lymph, the washing of the head, the answer is: supraclavicular, occipital, front of the ear.

If inflamed cervical lymph node, most likely, the reason lies in the mouth or close to the organs of respiration. The main causes of disease:

  1. Acute respiratory infection bacterial or viral etiology (ARI, ARI).
  2. Untreated caries.
  3. Complications of tooth decay: pulpitis, periodontitis.
  4. Gingivitis.
  5. Periodontitis or periodontal disease.
  6. Acute otitis media.
  7. Acute or chronic inflammation of sinuses: frontal sinusitis, sinusitis, sinusitis.
  8. Chronic or acute inflammation of the organs of the throat: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, adenoiditis.
  9. Trauma or other mechanical damage.
  10. Syphilis, tuberculosis, HIV, rheumatoid arthritis

With reduced immunity, the lymph nodes may increase, but pain and seals does not occur. Most often, if the increase is small and not really bothering the person for medical help not treated. But a slight increase in the lymph nodes can talk about developing the cancer, therefore, the appearance of even a small seal, you should consult a doctor.


As a rule, increase of submandibular lymph nodes occurs on the background of acute respiratory disease, or SARS, so it is difficult to identify the symptoms, but it is possible to determine characteristic features:

  • increase sometimes up to 5-7 cm in diameter, making it very difficult swallowing;
  • hurts on palpation (gently pressing);
  • the presence of small redness, localized at the “top” of the inflamed lymph node.

With the progression of the underlying disease, the lymph nodes become increasingly painful even at rest, compacted and more difficult swallowing. Other symptoms such as high fever, poor appetite, General malaise, most likely attributed to the primary disease. Cervical lymph nodes may be greatly increased in size, do not respond to palpation and is not in any way disturb the patient. In this case, you must consult an ENT and a dentist.

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Cervical lymph nodes can become inflamed when mechanical stress. This occurs when sudden severe compression of the neck. In this case the symptoms there is a characteristic formation of hematoma in the place of squeezing.

For chronic infectious processes of the lymph nodes are not greatly enlarged, not sealed, as a rule, painless on palpation. During periods of acute inflammation becomes more pronounced. In the overall analysis of blood marked leukocytosis and accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (elevated ESR).

Submandibular lymphadenitis and its treatment

Adults and children with the same periodicity sick ORZ and ORVI, and therefore submandibular lymphadenitis occurs equally often in any age. Ignoring symptoms is fraught with complications. Can develop suppuration of the inflamed lymph node, leading to an abscess and have to evacuate purulent contents.

Is opening an abscess, surgical cleaning of the cavity or its complete removal. If the abscess is extensive, superimposed drainage, which is gradually emerging through the contents. Then appointed antibacterial therapy aimed at prevention of postoperative complications. Can be assigned to the UHF-therapy dry heat or apply a hot compress. It is important to conduct heat treatment after opening the abscess, in order to promote healing.

Lymphadenitis can occur in two forms: acute (odontogenic) and chronic (neokonchennyi). Odontogenic submandibular lymphadenitis is treated by removing the source of the infection:

  • treatment of caries, pulpitis and periodontitis or removal of the patient’s tooth;
  • the treatment of periodontitis, gingivitis, periodontal disease;
  • treatment of acute infections (ARI, ARI).

It is important to complete diagnosis, because in some cases the diagnosis may be incorrectly set. For example, inflammation of the salivary glands — sialadenitis. The symptoms are similar to submandibular lymphadenitis, but in addition, there is a characteristic dry mouth and the presence of unpleasant taste.

What to do if cause inflammation of the lymph nodes can’t be set? You need to conduct a thorough differential diagnosis, eliminating serious diseases (tuberculosis, syphilis, lupus lupus). Increased lymph node always talks about the inflammatory process and can not be an independent disease, and therefore directed the treatment can not be. Will simply fail to remove the inflammation of lymph nodes without addressing the root cause of it.

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Antibiotics for submandibular lymphadenitis can be assigned only to the attending physician. It is very important to get expert assistance with a complete differential diagnosis to efficiently cure the primary disease. Frequently is assigned broad-spectrum antibiotics:

  1. The Ceftriaxone.
  2. Cefixime.
  3. Cephalexin.
  4. Amoxiclav.
  5. Amoxicillin.

In the case of tuberculosis or syphilis used drugs antisyphyllitic and anti-drugs. The use of antibiotics is justified only in case of bacterial origin of the disease. If the causative agent was a virus, antibiotics will not give the desired effect. It is necessary to take antiviral and immune-stimulating drugs.

The patient must comply with bed rest. Shown plentiful drink and reception of restorative. Prescribe multivitamin complexes. It is possible any heating of lymph nodes — this contributes to the spread of infection, the generalization process and may lead to General blood poisoning.

Folk remedies

With the help of traditional medicine also cannot cure submandibular lymphadenitis. You can alleviate the patient’s condition non-pharmacological methods, but it can’t provide proper treatment.

  • ginger tea — grate fresh ginger root, pour it with hot water and allow to steep for several hours. You can add lemon and honey;
  • the infusion of Echinacea helps reduce inflammation. It can be taken inside 50 drops in a glass of water (200 ml). You can apply the compress to the site of inflammation lymph node. Proportions — 1:2 Echinacea tincture to water;
  • beet juice has the effect of purification of lymph and blood. You can take it in its pure form or mixed with juices of celery, carrots, cabbage and Basil;
  • wild rose helps to relieve the major symptoms of intoxication with infectious disease. In 100 g of dried berries of the wild rose contains over 2000 mg of vitamin C. This powerful antioxidant to improve the performance of all body systems.

Rosehip and ginger tea is a very useful tool in treating any colds. It is very important to brew dried berries and grated ginger root. The water temperature should not exceed 98°C.

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For the treatment of gingivitis, you should regularly rinse your mouth. Well reduces inflammation saline solution at a concentration of 1 tablespoon salt, it is iodized, 250 ml of warm water. Instead of plain water you can use the decoction of calendula, chamomile, sage.

Video: submandibular lymphadenitis — what to do?


Specific prevention submandibular lymphadenitis no. Preventive measures are to prevent the development causes inflammation of the lymph nodes.

In periods of epidemics of acute respiratory infections and SARS, it is recommended to refrain from visiting crowded places. Regular dental visits will eliminate threats of development of a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with caries.

If we consider the autoimmune diseases, contributing to the development of submandibular lymphadenitis, prevention does not exist.

Further questions

► What’s the code for ICD-10?

Most likely submandibular lymphadenitis will be listed as L-04.0 according to ICD 10 revision. Literally, it means “Acute lymphadenitis of face, head and neck”. Common swollen lymph nodes is listed as R-59, which eliminates acute and chronic lymphadenitis. R-59.9 is the enlargement of lymph nodes unspecified etiology.

► What kind of doctor treats submandibular lymphadenitis?

Often the treatments involve therapists, because the main symptoms come to him. If the therapist doubts diagnosis, it sends a consultation with the otolaryngologist and the dentist.

► What is dangerous?

In the normal course of the underlying disease lymphadenitis is not dangerous. The increase goes as the patient’s recovery. If lymph nodes in the neck enlarged, but painless at palpation, the condition persists more than six months, it is feared the development of a nodule or cancer. Biopsy is indicated and a study using tumor markers.