Superficial caries: causes, diagnosis, treatment

Superficial caries is considered a common dental disorder which is diagnosed in patients of different age. The main provoking factors are considered pathologic processes of destructive actions that cause demineralization and destruction of tooth enamel. It is important to identify the disease and prevent its further progression. Superficial caries is the destruction of tooth enamel without penetration into the deeper layers of dental tissues. The first signs of the disease are considered dark and white spots.

The reasons for the development of pathology

Medical practice shows that most tooth decay occurs when non-compliance with hygiene of the oral cavity. The result of this is prolonged exposure to cariogenic and pathogenic microorganisms that cause the appearance of spots. This spot is a process of demineralization or deionization of the surface layer of enamel, which apparently does not cause noticeable symptoms of corrosion. If not timely treatment, there is a further leaching of calcium that ends in complete destruction of the enamel prisms.

To provoke the emergence of a pathological process can the following reasons:

  • low resistance of enamel;
  • drinking water of poor quality with insufficient content of fluorine;
  • inadequate and unbalanced nutrition;
  • insufficient secretion of saliva that causes the increased dry mouth;
  • noszenia dentures, braces, and plates.

In addition, often such caries develops when other dental pathologies, occurring in the oral cavity.

Symptoms of pathology

In a situation when the disease is in the stage of spot is, usually the characteristic signs are absent. In superficial caries, the patient may notice the following symptoms of pathology:

  1. When exposed to the different stimuli appear briefly painful. Mainly a pain syndrome develops as a reaction to mechanical and thermal stimuli, that is, the use of hot and cold drinks. A superficial caries pain is mild and disappears with elimination of the irritant.
  2. In that case, if the localization of the pathological process becomes a contact area of tooth surfaces, it may be stuck pieces of food. In addition, in the adjacent periodontal area may develop an inflammatory process which is accompanied by severe swelling, redness and bleeding upon contact.

During the inspection of the surface decay can be observed violation of the integrity of the enamel layer on the tooth surface.

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The mechanism of the development of the disease

Mainly this form of pathology is diagnosed when a routine physical examination in case if he rarely visits the dental office. Superficial caries is considered the next step in the development of the disease once tooth enamel appeared Melovoe spot. Tooth decay occurs when the oxidation of the enamel, and there is a pathological process under the influence of acids of organic origin, which distinguish the microorganisms in a person’s mouth.

Surface caries may not arise just like that. It usually appears in areas where there is a hearth demineralization of tooth enamel, that is, where the disease to be on the spot stage. Germs and bacteria accumulate on the teeth in the formation of too much plaque. There is a gradual leaching of calcium, enamel is slowly thins and softens, that is, developing initial dental caries.

Experts advise to eliminate tooth decay even when you see the spots through the fluoridation of teeth, sealing with a special compound or the observance of a special diet. In a situation if it was not held timely treatment, the disease process enters surface caries. For this pathology, treatment is aimed at removing the destroyed tissue by using a drill and only then microlaboratories molars. When refusal of treatment in such a decay there is a further destruction of the enamel by microorganisms and quickly they make their way to the dentin. This stage of pathology received the name of middle caries and requires more complex treatment and sealing.

The identification of pathology

In that case, if the location of the surface cavities become readily accessible for inspection place, then there is no problem with his diagnosis. Often when a careless attitude to their health or in the absence of characteristic symptoms the initial decay rapidly into the middle. To diagnose defects of the tooth is possible during routine inspection or in the treatment of other diseases of the oral cavity.

Diagnosis of the disease can be quite difficult in the case if the localization of cavities becomes difficult for the surface of the tooth. Often even the appearance of superficial caries on the chewing surfaces it is possible not to notice, for example, when it appears in the flask-shaped profound fissures or politisierung third molars. When probing a painful tooth revealed plot, which has a rough surface or a cavity of small size. Inside such a cavity can be softened and demineralized enamel, painted in yellow-grey color. Procedure probing of carious cavity does not cause the patient any pain and discomfort.

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In some cases, to detect hidden defects, the enamel is used transillumination of the when cold the light beam performs a scanning of the teeth. To diagnose lesions of superficial caries on the contact surfaces of the teeth is possible by using such procedures as x-rays. The detection of caries on the same tooth should look more closely at the same area on the opposite tooth of the jaw.

Features of the treatment of disease


Treatment of superficial caries involves the following steps:

  1. The specialist is the removal of plaque from the teeth and performing this procedure with the use of brushes and polishing abrasive pastes.
  2. The drill and special nozzles, the doctor removes the tooth enamel affected by caries. Usually it is necessary only to smooth the rough upper contour;
  3. The next step is getting treatment for drying the surface of the tooth and its isolation from saliva. In the process of sealing is applied, the adhesion of the cementitious composition and in contact with a wet surface it is attached to is much worse. This seal is often left out when pressed on the tooth or when cleaning with a toothbrush.
  4. The enamel is covered with acid, which makes it more porous. Due to this effect the seal adheres much better and lasts for a long time.
  5. After preparation of the enamel on the tooth surface to apply adhesive, i.e. an adhesive that allows the seal to stay on the teeth. To activate the adhesive is its highlighting special setprimarytablename lamp.
  6. The next step is getting a tooth filling, it has a special compound prepared to cover the sections, align them and attach the necessary form. Modern materials make it possible to give the desired shape to the tooth and accurately recover its color. After completion of all work restored tooth is lighted photopolymerization lamp.
  7. A superficial caries the final stage of the treatment becomes polishing of fillings and application of protective nail Polish. The application of boron with a special nozzle allows you to get the perfect shape of the tooth and Polish it.
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Often the initial caries is diagnosed in children of preschool age. In primary teeth can be a plurality of spots, ranging from white and ending with brown. Usually these spots are reminiscent of the RAID, but when you try to scrape them begins to break down the whole tooth.

For this reason, in children mainly initial caries not treated. Tooth enamel it is too thin and the drilling defects it may happen that the seal will have nothing. Experts advise to bring the child for treatment when the pathology is still in the stage of spots and is impossible to do without the use of a drill. In that case, if a loose tooth, it is necessary to wait, when it will fall out on their own.

Prevention of dental caries

With the appearance of superficial caries, be sure to visit the dentist, which will allow to carry out timely treatment and avoid further destruction of the tooth. In fact, the pathology progresses rapidly, and soon a slight caries develops in the middle stage or striking hard tissues of the tooth.

Experts recommend to do a professional dental cleaning at least two times per year and use of fluorine-containing pastes. Not the last role plays the correct choice of the stiffness of the brush and use mouthwash.

It is important to remember that tooth decay requires mandatory medical intervention. Visiting the dentist at least two times a year allows you to avoid the development of pathology, and, if necessary, to carry out the treatment of the disease.