Sweet breath: causes, adult
Sweet or fruity breath, despite the apparent pleasantness, is a symptom of a serious disease. Most often this symptom indicates the presence of liver or early stages of diabetes. Timely spotted the disease is usually amenable to correction. Fault diagnosis and recognition of halitosis (odor when breathing) independent disease leads to progression of the underlying pathology and poor prognosis.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Sweetish smell of the exhaled air is a direct indication for a thorough medical examination on two main areas:
- The study of the liver;
- Study of the level of blood sugar.
The probability of liver disease is higher if the breathing has a sweet flavor, resembling the smell of raw liver. This phenomenon is due to severe violations of the liver and accumulation in the blood of dimethyl sulphide, a substance typical of rancid products. Dimethyl sulfide accumulating in the body, the blood reaches the lungs and is excreted with the exhaled air, which becomes a cause of bad breath.
Diabetes breath of the patient smells of overripe fruit. This smell similar to the smell of acetone, which accumulates in the blood when there is insufficient secretion of insulin and a significant increase in indicators of blood sugar. Ketone bodies are formed as a result of lipolysis, blood reach the lungs and are excreted out. The smell of ripe fruit from diabetes is a terrible symptom, indicating precomatose condition and requires immediate medical care.
Diagnostics of the liver
Diagnosis of the liver begin with the collection of history. As a rule, patients suffering from the desired pathology, point the following symptoms:
- Pain in the right hypochondrium;
- Heaviness in right side after eating;
- Abdominal pain;
- Violation of the discharge of stool;
- Altered mental status;
- Skin problems (acne, sallow skin tone)
- Yellowness of the eye sclera, skin, urine and feces.
Objective data is obtained with invasive and non-invasive methods of examination. The patient is prescribed ultrasound examination of the liver, biochemical analysis of blood, analysis of blood for tumor markers and blood-contact infection. Typically, when ultrasound fails to identify organic pathology of the body (a violation anatomical structure, presence of tumors, inflammatory processes). Functional faults are diagnosed on the basis of the high amount of liver enzymes in the blood.
Cancer revealed in fact the presence of tumor markers in the blood and the ultrasound data, allowing to identify the tumor. The presence of tumor markers in the absence of data about the tumor in the ultrasound is the reason for dynamic monitoring and additional investigations (MRI, CT). The diagnosis of viral hepatitis is at a positive analysis on the blood-contact infection.
Causes of sweet smell can hide in the presence of liver cirrhosis, which is the final stage of viral hepatitis. Diagnosis of this disease is based on ultrasound examination and biochemical blood analysis. Also may require additional types of tests (blood-contact infection, immunity, tumour markers, and scintigraphy of the liver).
Diagnosis of diabetes
Causes of diabetes can be the destruction of pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production. In this case we talk about the insulin-dependent form of the disease. Considered of not achrestic diabetes, the appearance of which is caused by decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin. However, the elaboration of the hormone is not broken.
Sweet breath in children can occur in diabetes type I diabetes (insulin dependent). The same breath of an adult entrée at diabetes of the second type (not achrestic). In the first case, patients are the following symptoms:
- The loss of large amounts of fluid with urine;
- Severe weight loss.
Symptoms of insulin dependent diabetes usually develops quickly. Patients can be quite exact time of disease onset. Of not achrestic diabetes occurs gradually. Patients seek help only when the disease leads to complications.
In addition to the smell of breath, diabetes of the 2nd type appears in the form of signs such as:
- Itching in the genital area;
- Unexplained increase in body weight;
- Dry mouth;
- Unwell when drinking large quantities of carbohydrates.
The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus of the 1st type is confirmed by several tests on the content of glucose in the blood. Samples taken in the morning on an empty stomach. The level of sugar should not exceed the figure 5.5 mmol/l. higher numbers indicate the violation of the processes of glucose utilization in the body.
Of not achrestic diabetes type diagnosed in a test tolerance of tissues to insulin. In this patient take a blood test on an empty stomach, then give the drink a concentrated glucose solution and two hours later I repeat the study. The sugar level should not exceed 7.5 mmol/L. Indicators from 7.5 to 11 mmol/l indicate prediabetes. Glucose level above 11 mmol/l to diagnose the presence of diabetes of the second type.
Typically, patients prescribed and additional forms laboratory studies, such as:
- Test urine for sugar;
- Test the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin;
- Test for the presence of acetone in the urine;
- Determination of C-peptide;
- Determining the presence of antibodies to islets of Langerhans.
The last two types of studies are used for differential diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes type. The presence of C-peptide indicates an insufficient amount of insulin. Antibodies to islets of Langerhans — direct causes of the destruction of the tissues of the pancreas and termination of insulin production.
As became clear from above, breath sweet nature is not an independent disease. His reasons are much more serious pathology requiring thorough examination and full treatment. Once the disease is eliminated or compensated, will disappear and its symptom is halitosis.
Treatment of liver disease
Modern treatment of liver diseases is carried out in two ways:
- Direct impact on the pathogen;
- Impact on one or another stage of the pathogenetic process.
Etiotropic treatment is used for identifying the patient of viral hepatitis with parenteral mechanism of infection. Suppressing replication of the virus is carried out by assigning patients with interferons and antiviral drugs (adefovir, lamivudine). Unfortunately, there is no means to completely clean the human body from viruses hepatitis «b» and «C». However, timely medication allows you to control the level of viral load.
Pathogenetic treatment is carried out with the use of such pharmaceutical drugs as:
- Amino acids;
- Hydrolysates of proteins;
- Non-steroidal anabolics;
- Anti-inflammatory drugs;
Today the pharmaceutical market has more than a thousand names of drugs used for the treatment of liver diseases. However, none of them fully satisfies the requirements for such medicines. To achieve the desired therapeutic effect is possible only with the integrated use of several groups of drugs.
The treatment of diabetes
Complete cure for insulin-dependent diabetes impossible. Lack of insulin kompensiruet its artificial introduction. Applied as a prolonged form of the hormone is able to act for a long time, and the short-acting drugs, the use of which is necessary after a meal.
With the aim of improving the quality of life of the patient and also for prevention of lipodystrophy at the injection of insulin can be used an insulin pump.
Insulin pump — a device for continuous insulin under the skin of the patient with a permanent catheter. Used mainly in children and young patients. Avoids the need for repeated injections.
In addition to insulin, people with diabetes must follow a strict diet. It is prohibited to use a lot of sweets. However, equally important is the regular meals. Refusal to eat after insulin injections leads to a sharp rise in blood sugar levels and the development of hyperglycemic coma.
Diabetes 2 diabetes type insulin is not assigned. Patients recommend the use of hypoglycemic agents, diet, get regular moderate exercise. Also patients prescribed agents that increase tissue sensitivity to insulin.
Symptomatic treatment sweet breath
At the time of treatment of the underlying disease, causes the appearance of the sweet breath, the patient is recommended to use mouthwash, mint toothpaste, gum, possessing a pronounced odor. Of course, such methods should be applied only if allowed by the health status of the patient. Thus, the odor in a patient with diabetes indicates a critical increase in the level of glucose in the blood. The use of gum containing sugar can exacerbate the human condition.
Due to the fact that the patient’s mouth begins to exude a sweet smell only for very serious diseases, the prognosis for health is adverse. The life expectancy of the patient can be equal to the average life expectancy of a healthy person. To do this, you must adhere to all the necessary appointments and procedures.
Causes of reduced life expectancy of such patients usually lie in the refusal of necessary treatment. In this case, with diabetes develop complications such as:
- Loss of vision;
- Violation of vascular permeability;
- Critical blood sugar level;
Refusal of treatment in diseases of the liver usually leads to rapid development of cirrhosis, significant disorders of the body and death of the patient from acute liver failure.