The periodontium: what is it, structure, functions, diseases

Tell about such an important tissue as the periodontium. That is, its structure and functions, as well as various kinds of diseases all represent complex, but very important for the dental health theme.

In dentistry there is a conventional division for a more detailed and convenient for their study. In reality, all tissues that comprise the tooth or gums, are incredibly closely linked.

Anatomical features

To deal with the fact that it is, you need to consider the detailed structure and the anatomical and physiological features of the structure of the periodontium. So, from the point of view of anatomy, necessary to affect directly the cellular level:

  • fibro-, cement — and osteoblasts;
  • macrophages;
  • osteoclasts;
  • epithelial Islands Molasse.

All of the intercellular space is occupied by a special fiber that is a large part of the periodontium. This:

  • alveolar;
  • terminal;
  • oblique;
  • horizontal;
  • and Micronesia.

Mostly these fibers are composed of a protein called collagen. They are completely permeated with blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, and nerve endings. This integrated system helps to nourish the root of a tooth, to resist disease and due to good blood supply to support metabolic processes at a high level.

Normally, the periodontium has a thickness not greater than 0.2 mm and at its widest point, near the base of the crown to a maximum of 0.25 mm. And even though it consists of many cells, fibers, vessels, and has a fairly complex structure, occupies a minimum of space.

Histologic structure of the periodontium

One can distinguish the following components:

  1. Periosteum – the dense part.
  2. Alveolar bone is spongy bone, fully penetrated the various vessels.
  3. The periodontal ligament is directly responsible for the attachment of the tooth.
  4. The gums and gingival sulcus to protect the root from penetration of infections.
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Function

The periodontal performs important functions:

  • restraint – contributes to the consolidation of the tooth in the hole;
  • depreciation –softens and spreads the load;
  • plastic – here high the role of the the listed cells, fibro, osteo — and cementoblast, which helps the walls and ligaments to regulate their work;
  • barrier – periodontal resists bacteria;
  • trophic is provided by blood vessels and nerve plexus;
  • touch that is responsible for the susceptibility, sensitivity and the desired response during mastication.

Separately highlight the role of the periodontium in the process of teething in infancy. In addition, it helps to reduce the time of tissue regeneration, especially to restore the tooth root in injuries and even fractures.

All together suggests that the periodontium is the most important part of the structure of soft tissues. He is responsible for the endurance to load, provides reliable natural protection of roots, nourishes and controls the innervation and sensory behavior.

The types of diseases

When poor care can cause inflammation, leading to the defeat of these fibres and of the tooth itself. Almost all kinds of diseases of this tissue the doctors called periodontitis.

► He can only vary by origin:

  1. Traumatic.
  2. Infectious.

► Or in the form of its flow:

  1. Chronic.
  2. Sharp.

Particularly the difference in diagnosis, symptoms and treatment is not observed. Reasons for the spread of infection is either poor oral hygiene or low immunity of the patient. And it can affect and diseases of a General nature.

Dentists diagnose periodontitis by the following features:

  • the appearance of periodontal pockets, which accumulate pus;
  • bleeding;
  • loosening of the teeth;
  • the defeat of the alveolar tissue;
  • an unpleasant odor;
  • pain.
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Apply the following therapeutic procedures:

  1. Professional dental cleaning and periodontal pockets.
  2. Antibiotics and antiseptic agents.
  3. And advanced cases resort to surgery.
  4. Fixing teeth when they are slacking.
  5. Dentures, if the individual units still fell out.

Since the periodontium has good recovery properties, it is necessary to focus on the factors of regeneration, which will lead to its natural healing.

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Further questions

► Periodontal and periodontal – what are the differences between them?

The periodontium is the part of the periodontium. He is more close to the dental root and is directly responsible for keeping him in the hole. Periodontitis is a more extensive concept that includes virtually all of the soft tissue surrounding the tooth.