The plaque on the mouth in an adult: white spots in the sky
We will focus on this indicator of the presence of a foreign substance, as a coating on the mouth in the adult. Infection if ingested, triggers a specific immune mechanisms by which it detects. For example, fever, cough, wheezing, sweating, lethargy, rash, and so on.
The examination of the patient, the specialist starts with objective indicators. The patient is asked to undress and examine him from head to toe. Any deviation from the norm is recorded and used for diagnosis. For example, an examination of the oral cavity revealed white spot or thin whitish cheesy film that covers the thick body. It can be placed on the tongue, the mucosa of the gums, cheeks and the sky. The clouding of the tongue indicates inflammation in the stomach, gum disease and cheeks occurs in viral infections.
Causes of white sky
- Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. They colonize the microflora of humans only at very reduced function of the immune system. This happens after a prolonged use of antibacterial drugs, chronic infections, immunosuppressive conditions, pregnancy, HIV. Localization of lesions by fungi are variable, they can affect any organ: kidney, skin, genitals, mucous membranes of the eyes and throat, intestines and stomach. In the mouth the accumulation of fungi resembles white islets covering the mucosa as a thin layer.
- Lichen planus, localized in the oral cavity. KPL is a systemic severe disease characterized by trophic disorders of the mucous. Often affects skin, but in 20% of cases pathological focus is localized in the mouth. On the cheeks, gums, hard palate, and soft cobweb formed a white film, on which there are vesicular bubbles with blood content.
- Leukoplakia — a disease of the mucous membrane. Localized throughout the body: in the intestines, rectum, urinary system, nose, but most often appears in the oral cavity. On the palate and the language are formed with wide white rough spots that are associated with increased keratinization of mucous cover. After some time, the lesions covered with white bloom.
- Syphilitic tubercles. The sky edematous, plaque has a focal form, more loose structure, which, when scraping is eliminated with the formation of erosive ulcers. Syphilis is a systemic disease, sexually transmitted diseases.
- Worms and Giardia. Worm infestation is dangerous to humans, the fact that there is mechanical damage to the suckers of the parasite in the mucosa of the intestine, violated the processes of fermentation and digestion that causes the formation of plaque in the oral cavity. Giardia — more mobile organisms that can provoke obstruction of the bile duct, causing toxicity humans and staining of the mucosa white.
- Chronic foci of infection in which the immune system must expend a force in a constant struggle with the pathogen. For example, gastritis, pancreatitis, tooth decay, osteomyelitis, arthritis, goiter, herpes. The most common reason for the development of plaque in the mouth in adults.
- Bacterial sore throat that is associated with the influence of the group of streptococci or staphylococci. In the initial stage affects the tonsils, and then the process extends to the sky and predlagayu mucosa. Depending on the type of quinsy, the film will have an inherent characteristic picture:
- catarrhal whitish thin film with a Muco-purulent exudate;
- follicular white dots, towering over the swollen tonsil;
- lacunar — is progressing. Under the white points located in the gaps with purulent contents, which burst and nekrotizirutee;
- ulcero-membranous — is characterized by the formation of ulcers under the white thick cheesy film.
What is the clinic
Quite often, the plaque in the mouth is not bothering the patient, and the process is observed only at the dentist’s office. But there are cases when patients self-treat with complaints of pain when chewing and swallowing, reduced taste sensitivity, reaction to food temperature, increased salivation, disturbance of word formation.
- Candidiasis the patient also notes a burning sensation and bitter taste in the mouth, dry mucous membrane, cracks in the corner of the mouth.
- Angina is characterized by intoxication, which is accompanied by a temperature increase, excessive sweating, headache, lethargy, drowsiness, apathy, chills.
- The pathogenesis of leukoplakia is associated with the change in the structure of the oral mucosa, leading to impaired development of the papillae and taste perversion. That is, people, eating spicy and salty food, does not feel or, on the contrary.
- In the flat lichen in the clinic complained about the excruciating pain when eating, as bubbles burst upon contact with food.
- If you suspect syphilis you should collect accurate medical history for the presence of unprotected and indiscriminate sex.
- Worm infestation is characterized by symptoms of disorders of celebratory, constipation and diarrhoea. When the persistence of Giardia is often present jaundice.
Objective data and medical history. Mandatory close examination of each patient presenting complaints of pain while eating food or the presence of a white film. If the patient has addressed to the therapist, necessary to immediately send it to the dentist’s office. History collection allows you to establish the etiology, for example in chronic infections. The above pathology has its own distinctive clinical picture. But for more accurate diagnosis and effective treatment requires additional methods of diagnostics.
Laboratory methods include blood tests, urine and other biological fluids and tissues to determine the correct diagnosis:
- Candidiasis. Examine the blood for the presence of human immunodeficiency virus, and also take a scraping from the affected mucous membrane. When the mushrooms micropreparation the diagnosis is confirmed. Fungi feed on carbohydrates, so the increase of glucose in the serum of the patient is an additional marker of the disease.
- Ringworm. The patient is sent for a biopsy of the mucosa, and then carried out histological examination of tissue. When the drug signs of increased keratinization, increase in the number of cells the diagnosis is confirmed. Additionally, use methods of evaluation of the immune system, which leaves significantly inhibited.
- Angina. Carried fence smear of the mucous membrane, then the material is sent for examination. Determine the number of antigens to the pathogen, the sensitivity of the species of the pathogen to the antibacterial drug, determine the structural part (DNA) of the pathogen.
- Syphilis. To draw attention to the systemic manifestations, the spread of syphilitic granulomas in other organs. The criterion for diagnosis is a positive Wasserman reaction, which detects Treponema.
- Leukoplakia. Histological study of the mucosa in which is found a structural violation of the structure of the mucous membrane.
- Worms are diagnosed by means of verification of the fecal and Giardia are detected in instrumental diagnostics of the gastrointestinal tract.
Treatment and prevention
Violation of the functions of the oral mucosa leads to complications in the structure of the whole organism. First, the presence of foci of infection contributes to its spread to nearby organs and tissues: the teeth, with cavities, sinuses, conjunctiva of the eye, shell, and the substance of the brain. Seemingly inconspicuous white film in the sky can lead to serious diseases such as meningitis and encephalitis with a high risk of death.
The first thing you need to do with the appearance of a turbid plaque is to determine the etiological factor. After accurate diagnosis treatment begins with exposure to the cause of the disease. Followed by the elimination of symptoms of the disease.
Fungal plaque. With the purpose of etiotropic therapy apply antifungal medications such as fluconazole and Ketoconazole. The pharmacy sold tablet form of release and used for 2 weeks on 2 tablets. In the presence of systemic manifestations on the skin topically applied the ointment in the form of applications. Liniments antifungal — Clotrimazole and Nystatin. With the purpose of numbing the mouth before eating, apply lotions with Lidocaine or Articaine.
Surgical treatment is not carried out. After treatment, the symptoms subsided in 5 days, and by the end of the second week from the RAID, not a trace remains. For the prevention of recurrent candidiasis patients appropriate to prescribe drugs that stimulate the activity of the immune system. These include: Anaferon, Kagocel, Interferon. The patient must take them within one month. You can resort to traditional medicine: tincture of ginseng and Eleutherococcus are natural activators of the immune system.
After a course of antibiotics, in addition to preparations for the growth of bacteria in the intestine, should be administered antifungal agents.
In the treatment of angina, the choice of drug depends on the type of pathogen that caused the infection. When staphylococcal or streptococcal sore throat prescribe antibiotics. Use of new synthetic drugs with a broad spectrum in combination: cephalosporins, protected penicillins, glycopeptides. When viral etiology is appropriate to prescribe antiviral drugs Anaferon, Arbidol, etc.
Angina swallowing becomes extremely painful, so the purpose of analgesic sprays, for example, Hexanal and Antiangina, necessarily.
For the treatment of lichen planus drugs of choice are the corticosteroids, Prednisone, Hydrocortisone. Apply as a spray, the effect of local. To avoid side effects dose of steroids is gradually reduced and subsequently completely abolished. Local treatment consists in the appointment of Anastasia, with the aim of pain relief, and drugs that enhance tissue regeneration. These include vitamin E and methyluracil.
A fairly common complication after taking steroid medicines is a fungal infection, with a view to its prevention are assigned to the above-mentioned drugs.
- Strict observance of rules of personal hygiene: personal use only toothbrush and toothpaste, preferably for sensitive teeth. Once a day thoroughly clean the teeth gaps with dental floss. Use a brush to clean the palate and tongue.
- Fractional balanced diet — a variety of products, with an increased number of meals. Wash vegetables and fruits before consumption.
- To prevent the development of beriberi acceptance of complex products in the autumn-winter period.
- Timely treatment of caries and chronic infections in the body to avoid low immunity.
In some cases, white spots are interpreted as markers of precancerous lesions. For verifizierung it is necessary to monitor laboratory parameters of tumor markers in the blood. Next, is appointed by consultation of the oncologist.
The etiology of leukoplakia, is not clearly determined, but in most cases the reason for the development of the dead sites is mechanical damage. In the mouth it’s possible with enough polished the edges of teeth and dentures. Before treatment the patient is sent for consultation to the dentist that often promotes self-healing of the oral mucosa. But in severe cases, the intervention of conservative medicine, the administration of vitamins a, b, C, D. Company Asepta produced a special vitamin complexes for oral cavity, which cope well with the symptoms of leukoplakia and prevent its further development. In extreme situations, when the state threatens the life of the patient, a laser excision.
The treatment of syphilis involved the dermatologist, the therapy is long and sometimes runs to several months. The patient is on a clinical account, even after clinical recovery takes several courses of diagnosis. Specific treatment with drugs penicillin — penicillin is injected 2 times a week for 2 months, followed by a laboratory activity control Treponema pallidum, and the dose is reduced.
Within 3 years after infection the patient is on a clinical account. Every 3 months is control study of blood, and the decision on deregistration shall be taken individually.
For erraticaly worms and Giardia are used antiparasitic drugs. Is Pyrantel, Nemasole, Zentel.
Chronic disease should be in remission, but better — in the phase of clinical recovery. If the patient is registered, for example, an endocrinologist or gastroenterologist, is necessary to explain the impact of the disease on the immune system. If a white film is formed by gastritis, you first need to treat inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
All adults with the discovery of the plaque on the mucosa of the hard palate are appointed by antiseptic solutions for mouthwash, such as Miramistin, Chlorhexidine, went to the doctor. After each meal should rinse the mouth to reduce the risk of complications.