The treatment of periodontitis: signs, symptoms, causes

Periodontitis (translated from Latin – «perio» — around is; «Odon» — tooth; «itis,» a disease of an inflammatory nature) is inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth. The etiological factors of this pathology are different. In the first place are the microorganisms, and mechanical trauma. Inflammation occurs primarily, but also on the background of chronic lesions of the pulp or as a result of substandard treatment of channels. To clarify the etiological factor to be treated, additional research methods.

Classification of the disease

Periodontitis of the tooth can be caused by various factors, from which came the name of the classification. Periodontitis can be: infectious, drug-induced, traumatic. To be leaking the pathological process may rapidly or long depending on the immune status of the patient, and the activity of pathological factors, age, comorbidities and other Symptoms of periodontitis depends on the form of the pathological process. Experts distinguish between acute and chronic periodontitis. The last form dentist can catch during remitting clinical symptoms (remission), and in the period of exacerbation.

Inflammation of the periodontium accompanied by the formation and accumulation of pathological fluid (exudate), which may be serous and purulent. The emergence of the root tip cells of inflammation indicates long-term chronic process. Depending on the detected changes around the root experts distinguish between periodontitis: fibrotic, granulating, granulomatous.

The etiology of the disease

What is pyorrhea infectious? Is inflammation of the tissues caused by the vital activity of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora of the oral cavity. Among all pathogens often cause disease: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, fungi, etc. to Penetrate the tissue, reaching the root, agents in several ways: the part destroyed by caries, as well as from the nearby foci of inflammation (e.g., rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.).

Your doctor may diagnose traumatic periodontitis, if it is preceded by a strong blow or a sharp biting a hard object. Inflammation can occur if the tip of the tooth gets pus whether the filling material.
Medical periodontitis may be if the tooth got any highly irritant, for example, formalin, phenol, various pastas, etc. the Symptom of pain occurs in the first days after the treatment with the application of irritating remedies.

Signs of periodontitis

Acute periodontitis

If we are talking about periodontitis, symptoms and treatment will depend on acute or chronic he. The main symptom of acute periodontitis is a pain, which is obvious and markedly increases with pressure (e.g., bite) of the tooth. The patient accurately indicates the diseased tooth, and the doctor in the course of medical history, identifies the causes of periodontitis and how to treat it. If not contact, in soft tissues accumulates pus. The pain becomes unbearable: pulsing, gives the ear, temple, eye, jaw. If at this stage the treatment of periodontitis is not, then the gums and the cheek markedly swollen. Upon inspection of the causal tooth may be decayed or closed crown. After a short time begins to suffer overall health: the body temperature rises, there is a General malaise, sleep and appetite. If you try to treat it yourself or completely ignore the treatment, it is likely the following complications: sepsis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, etc.

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Chronic periodontitis


Symptoms in remission are manifested poorly. The causal tooth was slightly changed: the surface enamel has a grayish tint, and he was destroyed by caries. The patient can remember that before the tooth was ill, and then the pain subsided. On the gums above this tooth may appear fistula, as a rule, the mouth there is a nasty putrid smell. To clarify diagnosis and determine the stage of the disease – will help x-rays. Periodontitis in the period of exacerbation, what is it? Symptoms of acute diseases and in acute and chronic are similar. The only difference is the following: back pain, which was tested first with early exacerbations and the change data on x-ray, the presence of a fistula, for easy movement of the tooth etc.

Diagnosis of the disease

In addition to these complaints clarify the diagnosis specialist help: electrogoniometry previously treated tooth, x-ray, sometimes a blood test.

What is electrogoniometry? It is a diagnostic method in which measured the threshold of excitability of the pulp. The less she reacts to a stimulus, the more likely it is that it is inflamed.

Treatment of periodontitis is very rarely carried out without radiography. It was on the picture in the picture the doctor evaluates the disease. This method is particularly valuable if you have little symptoms. The image can be judged, why is there a periodontitis to clarify the causes.

The treatment of the disease

How to treat periodontitis in various forms and etiologic factors? Methods of treatment of periodontitis are reduced, first, by the elimination of the inflammatory process in the apex of the root. Regardless of which methods of treatment of periodontitis apply, a doctor treats root canals. If the root filling is not possible remove, applied operational methods. In this case, the stages of treatment of periodontitis will be the following:

  • after local anesthesia carious cavity is cleaned, removed the crown of the tooth, etc.;
  • opened the tooth cavity, after removing the necrotic pulp;
  • gradually cleaned up and washed the canals.

Different stages of processing involve the use of special tools of different thickness. Root canals are washed such with antiseptic solutions like chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, etc.

During the first stage, you need to carefully release the tooth root of anesthetized tissue. If a lot of pus, the tooth cavity left open, and with the aim of washing away the pus, the patient is advised to rinse the mouth with soda solution. The tooth is closed only during the meal a small cotton ball.

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On a subsequent visit to the canal laid the medicinal paste that has anti-inflammatory effect. Leave them for about 5 days under a temporary filling. If the pain subsided, the patient feels better, the tooth canals are filled with permanent hardening materials together with pins. The whole treatment process is monitored using x-rays.

Complications that may occur after treatment

Even complete removal of pathological tissue from the tooth cavity and channels is not 100% successful therapy. Very often, after treatment, the pain continues to resonate. During the treatment of periodontitis treatment is carried out with different tools, which can injure tissue. This could be the cause of pain in the first days after treatment. Pain is not considered normal if accompanied by fever, swelling of the cheeks, fever, etc.

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A few days later on sealed the tooth better not to hold the load during chewing of food. In order to avoid inflammation a doctor may be appointed antimicrobial therapy, and physiotherapy (UHF, UHF, etc.).

Quite often without any symptoms can increase of pathological lesion in the bone tissue. In such cases, resection of the (circumcision) of the root, which removes its tip together with a modified tissue inflammatory lesion. Space that is vacant is filled with special drugs. If the treatment effect was not, the inflammation continues to show a variety of symptoms, the tooth is removed to prevent spreading to nearby tooth roots.

What is the difference between periodontal disease is the inflammation of the pulp

Pulp or the pulp of the tooth it fills the cavity. Its inflammation is called pulpitis. In its course, as with any other disease, it can be chronic and acute. The latter form is accompanied by the rapid reaction of pain that occurs in response to exposure to cold, or Vice versa, when taking very hot food. There is pain in itself especially at night and extend along the branches of the trigeminal nerve. That is why sometimes it’s hard to tell which tooth is the source of pain. In acute periodontitis causative tooth immediately known. The pain becomes more pressing, strong closing the jaws. Temperature stimuli do not cause the typical reaction. On the contrary, under the influence of cool water discomfort be less.

Chronic forms of two different diseases difficult to distinguish, which is associated with a poor symptoms in remission. The difference is the following: when the pulp causal tooth reacts to temperature changes of food intake, as well as during inhalation of cold air. After taking pain medication the pain goes away. In chronic periodontitis, the patient rarely complains of unpleasant sensations that occur during mastication and falling of large pieces of food on the problematic tooth.

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And externally, while in other diseases there is a carious cavity. Only the crown has a different color: when the pulp is not changed, while in periodontitis it becomes dull. Due to the fact that the depth of lesion is different, the x-rays can also be different. When the pulp is noticeably a bottom cavity, and in periodontitis – significantly changed the periodontal gap, and the pattern of bone tissue. In addition, there is thickening of the cement of the root.

Treatment of the two diseases have similarities and differences. In both cases, purification from pathological tissues, only in the pulp – cavity, and in periodontitis and cavities and channels. After cleansing the necessary medical treatment. With pulpitis, the tooth can immediately be sealed by installing a permanent seal, and in periodontitis temporary filling is set, under which is a medicinal paste. Tactics of treatment depends on many factors: extent of the inflammatory focus, on the number of roots and, consequently, root canals, from the age of the patient etc.

What to do if there are signs of periodontitis

If you feel unbearable pain, which is clearly manifested in mastication, and the tooth cannot be touched – it is forbidden to heat a given area. Erroneous action, if applied to the gums are not prescribed painkillers solutions, pills. In the first case there is expansion of blood vessels, increasing the blood flow, which contributes to infection and the spread of germs outside of the pathological focus. In the second case, drugs can cause a chemical burn and not have needs, the expected therapeutic effect.

To reduce pain may soda solution, which is in the form of heat should be kept in the mouth, and then spit out. It may be cooked in the following way: in a glass of water and added a teaspoon of baking soda.

The aching tooth should be given a rest. Receive pain medication inside only temporarily removes the main symptom of the disease. To seek qualified help should be soon, if the background pain, fever, deteriorating General health. In this case, it is impossible to self-medicate! Periodontitis is preceded by the pulpit. Therefore matters in a timely manner to visit the dentist for prophylaxis, as well as to treat minor tooth decay to avoid the complications of such diseases.