Tooth decay in children: causes of caries of deciduous teeth, treatment
All children love sweets. And unfortunately, not all parents protect their child from it. Of course, to completely ban sweets is impossible, and not necessary. You just need to follow some rules. Otherwise there is caries in the child. It develops in children very quickly. Therefore, it is necessary carefully to watch that. The treatment of childhood caries is conducted a little differently. Structure of the milk tooth has its own characteristics. They and the color and shape are different from permanent. Therefore, the development of caries there is slightly different.
How is tooth decay in children and what are its characteristics development
It has been proven that tooth decay in children develops because of a bacterial microflora that enters the mouth mainly because of their parents. It can be transmitted through shared utensils with a towel when you lick the pacifier when it fell, even by kissing. But when the bacteria get into the mouth the child, they are opportunistic, that is, not immediately cause caries. Under the influence of any factors, they aktiviziruyutsya and is already causing your harm.
It may excessive consumption of sweets, not even tea with sugar or juice, feeding disorders, poor hygiene, lack of essential minerals for the teeth. Bacteria are very plentiful in carbohydrates. Therefore, the use of some delicacy, especially in the form of candy or toffee, in between meals will lead very quickly to tooth decay. Any chewy candy hard to clean saliva from the tooth surface to form plaque, which can be removed only by cleaning the teeth with a brush. So you should monitor that uses child. This is the main reason of caries in deciduous teeth.
Varieties of tooth decay
Childhood caries classification does not differ from that in adults. There are also in depth initial, superficial, middle and deep. Can be localized on the chewing surfaces in the fissure, in the cervical region, on the contact surfaces and even completely around the tooth. The only distinguish caries of deciduous and permanent teeth in children. Because despite the fact that they are permanent until the child has a mixed dentition, that is, there are still dairy, this would be considered a children’s caries. Both have such a structure that tooth decay develops rapidly. They have wide dentinal tubules infection and it spreads much faster. Recently prorezalsya permanent teeth is not immediately mineralized, so they can also be quickly infected.
The clinical picture
The caries of deciduous teeth in children may be totally different. It can rapidly affect all tissues, even to reach the nerve, and may suspend, hitting only the surface layers. Early caries much discomfort does not cause children. Mostly from worried parents when they notice one or more spots on the tooth enamel. They themselves are matte, can have color from white to dark brown. When probing does not cause any unpleasant sensations. Milk teeth caries in children of early age is more common in this stage. If time does not pay attention and take action, he can go ahead and hit the entire tooth.
Middle childhood caries of deciduous teeth has affected the dentin, which contains nerve endings. Therefore, the impact of the stimulus may cause pain symptoms. But in view of the peculiarities of the dentition of these species are rare. The infection quickly spreads over a wide dentinal tubules, affecting the deeper layers of dental tissues. With deep complaints will be the same as in adults. Pain occurs in contact with food in the cavity, which immediately takes place after its removal. The probing is painful around the bottom of the cavities. Positive reaction to the temperature stimuli.
The sight of this rapid development, it is likely that dental caries in primary teeth not stay on the surface and affects the pulp, the tooth nerve. But there are cases when the tooth decay is suspended. It is believed that if the cavity is black and the bottom in sounding solid, the tooth decay stopped, otherwise we can say that he is chronic. But if he light, the bottom is soft, the cavity is filled with softened dentin, it is actively developing. This applies not only to dental caries in children. Damage to the anterior milk is common in children who abuse sweet drinks and don’t brush their teeth. Caries of the front may be on the vestibular surface on contact. In the latter case, the corners are affected very rarely.
Caries of permanent teeth in children
Permanent teeth before eruption are formed for a long time, for 6-7 years. This also applies to the mineralization of hard tissues, that is, saturation with minerals, which strengthen them and root development. Due to the fact that the teeth do not end up mineralized, the enamel is still weak, and can transmit not only essential nutrients, but bacterial flora. Therefore, despite the fact that the teeth of the new, «fresh», they may be affected by the carious process. And due to the fact that the roots are not fully formed, infection can easily exceed them and impress the jaw bone. Therefore, it is necessary to stop the spread of infection. Clinically it is manifested as adults. In this case, the child may already own to talk about their complaints and diagnosis is facilitated.
Therapeutic measures to eliminate caries in children
Tooth decay in young children causes fear of going to the dentist. Because they are afraid that they will hurt. Treatment of caries in children should be painless, so your child can continue to visit the dental office calm and he was left with terrible memories.
Features of treatment of caries in children are to approach to him. First and foremost, it is necessary to have a child. Ask questions not related to the problem, because of which he came. Divert to unrelated topics, make him relax and feel at ease.
When working with children it is impossible to think about time. You must configure the child in a positive way, so he trusted the doctor. This stage plays a huge role in subsequent treatment.
Then if you want to produce analgesia. Treatment of deep caries in young children, for example will cause pain. For them there are special sprays with anesthetic effect. The effects are not long lasting, so you need to quickly carry out the procedure. Sometimes spray just spray on causal tooth, sometimes on a cotton ball and put it accordingly in the form of applications in cavity for a few minutes. For older children it is possible to apply infiltration or conduction anesthesia, pre-numb the injection site. But first and foremost, you need to know about the presence of an allergic reaction. If you have never experienced this and the parents don’t know, then be sure to conduct an Allergy test on the anesthetic.
Therapeutic measures at different stages
During the initial decay, i.e. in the stage of spots that on dairy that is necessary to conduct regular remineralizing therapy. Treatment of caries of deciduous teeth in children in this case can still be silver. This is very efficient and painless. And it’s often used for temporary because it leaves a gray residue that won’t come off. Renteria need to saturate the hard tissue minerals, namely calcium, sodium, fluorine. Most often the session is ten days, but more may be required. In the early days make an application with a cotton swab moistened with hypochlorite of calcium. Keep them on average for about five minutes. Then a few days connected fluoride. It is not from the first day to apply, because it closes the pores in the enamel, and there it will be impossible to deliver calcium. Is also possible to perform electrophoresis with the same drug. There are also special gels with the desired structure.
How to treat surface caries in a child? In this case, the more preparation is required. Enough to spend grinding, then remineralizing. How to treat caries in children with lesions of the dentin, may be required, and anesthesia and dissection. If the cavity is filled with soft dentine, it is removed manually with an excavator. It will be less painful. In other cases, dissect at low speed intermittently. You must remove all the affected tissue to cured tooth again not subjected to the carious process. After the tooth is treated with a weak antiseptic solutions and sealed. The same procedure performed in deep carious lesion. Difference is the imposition of medical pads on the bottom of the cavity.
Basic steps of treatment:
- Premedication including the calm little patient and the location on yourself;
- The holding of local anesthesia or General anesthesia as necessary;
- The removal of the damaged tissues manually, drilling or laser;
- Drug treatment with hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine;
- Imposition of medical cushioning material on the bottom, that is, the wall facing the dental nerve (with deep caries);
- Install insulating gaskets on the wall to the enamel-dentinal border and the bottom;
In modern dentistry often use a laser, it is great when out and treatment of dental caries in young children. Laser treatments have many advantages, the procedure is absolutely painless.
It treats only the carious tissue. Due to the fact that the laser tip is not in contact with the very tooth the procedure is absolutely sterile, and the possibility of secondary caries at once disappears. But unfortunately this method of treatment is not affordable for everyone.
Prevention of dental caries in children
A very important role in the occurrence of carious process is plaque. Characterization of its impact is described everywhere. If present, underneath bacteria multiply very comfortable and fast. Therefore, prevention in the first place is personal hygiene. Immediately after the eruption of the milk tooth, despite his age, you need to clean it. Do it with a sterile gauze soaked with water. With two years you can use toothpaste. Then teach the child to brush their teeth morning and evening every day after a meal. Follow the correct technique, correct. Give first to clean and then clean. This is something that concerns hygiene.
A lot plays an important role and nutrition. It is often necessary to consume foods rich in calcium and crude fiber. Why you need calcium so clear. Fiber is necessary for self-purification. In other words, when a person, whether an adult, whether the child eats vegetables or fruits containing coarse fiber, when they are rubbing themselves teeth cleaned of plaque. It is also necessary to prohibit the reception of sweet moments between the main meals. If, nevertheless, it so happened that the child ate sweets, at least rinse the mouth.
In the presence of deep fissures the occurrence of dental caries significantly increases because they are difficult to clean and accumulates plaque there. Therefore, they must be immediately sealed. It’s called fissure sealing. Tooth enamel is coated with a special gel, washed, dried, and then placing the filling material. Preparation is not required. Then simply plambeck grind below the surface was smooth. This permanently prevents the development of caries process.
Equally important is the quality and composition of drinking water. If there is not enough fluoride, it also leads to a cariogenic situation in the area. In such cases, the problem of suitable centrally. Spend the fluoridation of drinking water. Also use fluoride toothpaste. All of this is still possible to carry out the procedure in the dental office. Teeth thoroughly cleaned of plaque, isolated from saliva, completely dried and applied fluoride varnish. Leave to dry completely. After application you can’t eat for half an hour. That day it is forbidden to take the rough hard food and brush your teeth before bed. Because of the varnish on the teeth forms a pellicle, which should saturate the tooth enamel for at least twelve hours. It can be easily removed by mechanical action.
The most important thing when they notice even the slightest stain, it is necessary to apply directly to the dentist. This spot may seem harmless again does not hurt, but it can develop very quickly and hit the deeper layers.
If inflammatory infection will move to the root apex, then the tooth must be removed. Why would a child unnecessary psychological trauma. And do not think that it is milk teeth and they fall out eventually. This infection can spread to the permanent they are directly under the roots of time. So you should pay more attention to their child’s teeth if you want to keep them healthy.