Tooth extraction: causes, methods, how is

In cases where the treatment fails or high risk of severe complications is removing the tooth (extraction). This dental surgery root extraction from the wells using surgical instruments — forceps. To do this, exfoliate the gums, dissolved connection with the alveolus, after which it rip. Removal — teeth — extreme measure in surgery and dentistry, for which experts are only for compelling reasons.

For what reason perform the extraction

Why remove the teeth? This question can be answered by a specialist after inspection of the oral cavity. Encourage dentist to appointment surgery can the causes of tooth extraction:

  1. chronic periodontitis, exacerbation, need of readjustment of the mouth;
  2. odontogenic osteomyelitis (acute form);
  3. purulent periostitis, cellulitis;
  4. lymphadenitis;
  5. oculoselective abscesses;
  6. the acute form of sinusitis;
  7. obstruction of root canals;
  8. mobility;
  9. severe destruction of the hard tissues, they cannot be cured;
  10. cyst;
  11. impacted;
  12. malocclusions;
  13. permanent injury of the tongue and mucous membranes;
  14. a hindrance in the installation of the denture.

Before operation it is necessary to find out whether it is possible to remove the tooth. Because this process is not always appropriate.

Contraindications to the removal

In some situations, the removal of the patient’s tooth may be contraindicated and even dangerous:

  • pregnancy, especially first and third trimesters;
  • viral infectious diseases (ARVI, acute respiratory infections, flu);
  • heart disease, arrhythmia, angina, hypertension, preinfarction angina;
  • diseases of other internal organs (pancreatitis, renal failure, hepatitis);
  • Oncology;
  • dystrophy;
  • intoxication by alcohol;
  • diseases of the nervous system;
  • acute inflammation of the gums — gingivitis, stomatitis.

Before you remove the tooth, the dentist must check the patient for presence of factors that prohibit the surgery.

Preparing for surgery

Surgery to remove the tooth requires a little self-training, so the process was faster and more productive.

  1. To treat inflammation in the oral cavity. Otherwise the infection can get into the open wound, causing inflammation, decay and swelling;
  2. to eat before surgery in about two hours. If you pull a tooth on an empty stomach, the mouth will produce a large accumulation of saliva. This will complicate the work of the dentist;
  3. before you remove, you need to make an x-ray. This will help to figure out how it has its roots, are bent whether they have any form. With such knowledge the dental surgeon will be much easier to perform the surgery. It will be faster and less painful thanks to the precise movements of the expert. If the operation will be carried out by a few crowns, made the photograph the upper and lower jaws, sinuses, gums and roots. Forbidden x-ray examination during pregnancy.
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For pullout of the patients teeth used dental forceps, which operate on the principle of the lever. In their structure they have the cheeks (for grasping crowns) castle (provides a movable connection), handles (the doctor is making them stress during the procedure). The tongs have a different shape and purpose:

  • the removal of the front teeth is carried out by means of straight forceps;
  • for the upper and lower jaw structure of the tool varies. The first match handles and cheeks, sometimes form an obtuse angle. The second they are at right angles;
  • removal of a molar tooth of the upper jaw curved forceps hold. Remove small root forceps S-shaped.

In addition to crimper dentists-surgeons use the elevators and the handpiece.

What is the procedure

The stages of tooth extraction:

  1. first of all you need to do anesthesia. Extraction of the tooth is performed under local anesthesia, but in some cases General anesthesia. It is used for special reasons or at the request of the patient;
  2. further, the separated part of the gum;
  3. forceps captured the crown;
  4. press the handle of the Curling iron she is shaken, everything connects it to the gum tissue are destroyed, in the end it can easily be pulled out of the hole.

This generalized algorithm, as is removal of the tooth. Depending on its location and appearance vary some of the nuances in the operation.


Upper incisors have a single root rounded conical shape. Because of this pulling by turning. Removing the top layer of the tooth is carried out using straight forceps with broad cheeks. Sometimes one rotation is small, the root is not out of the hole. Then him rocking back and forth, and then continue the rotation. The lower incisors root is thin and straight, laterally compressed. The removal of these teeth in the lower jaw produce curved forceps with narrow cheeks. Use this method of removal is to rock, then pull up.


The upper canines have massive root, long and laterally flattened, tip curved. The removal of such teeth in the upper jaw is straight forceps with broad cheeks. Extraction method — the rocking in combination with the rotation around the axis. To extract the required effort.

Remove the bottom of the tooth produce forceps for lower molars. Tissue destruction held sway.


The root the biggest. They are the hardest to extract. The removal of permanent teeth begins with the x-ray. Students must see the location of the roots. After anesthetization and separation of gums crown shaken pendulum movements. To pull the lower root, it is carried out to remove special forceps with spikes. They pass between the roots, easier than the ongoing process.

In the upper jaw using forceps with S-shaped bend. In the most severe cases removal of permanent teeth takes place with the cutting of a tooth crown to pieces. It is easier to maintain the integrity of the jaw. After a couple of days, you need to make an x-ray to confirm whether all the roots and parts of them were extracted from the alveoli.

Complex operations

Difficult is the operation when the normal tooth extraction technique is not suitable to a particular case. These include the removal of wisdom teeth. A simple forceps operation is not implemented. The doctors resort to cutting of the gums and supraspinous tissue to get to the root.

If the crown is growing horizontally, or diagonally, apply the split it into pieces using a laser or a special saw. Should we be afraid of such manipulation? No, since the tooth is removed with anesthesia, besides, so the process takes less time. After removing the tooth in parts easier for the dentist.

After surgery with dissection of the tissues of the wound sutured. A common method of removal of teeth in complex cases. Person is at their discretion depending on the specific situation.

After the procedure

The process of removing the tooth behind. What now? Bleeding from wounds stop after 20-30 minutes. During the first few hours the pain will not be felt, as it hasn’t been the anesthesia. Then begins the pain in the gums, the jaw, perhaps in the cheeks.

Swelling may appear, especially if I had surgical removal of complicated tooth cutting the gums. In this case, the fever and chills are not uncommon. Swelling of the gums may go to the cheek. If such symptoms persist for several days, you should contact the clinic for medical care.

Gradually empty hole is fastened with a cloth, but remains soft. Chew on it uncomfortable and painful. After 3-4 months it becomes solid, typical of healthy gingiva, the surface.

What not to do after surgery

In order that the operation of removing the tooth has not given complications, you need the first few days to follow some restrictions. Here’s what is not recommended:

  • to eat food during the period of anesthesia. It remains up to five hours;
  • consumption of very hot or cold foods and drinks. Do not expose the wound to sharp temperature fluctuations.
  • the toxic effects. From alcohol and Smoking should be discontinued at least 2 days;
  • drinking carbonated beverages;
  • brushing teeth in the first day after the extraction;
  • rinsing the mouth. So slowing down the recovery of tissue damaged gums;
  • to touch the wound with tongue or some objects;
  • sauna, steam room, hot tubs. High temperatures provoke bleeding and slow healing;
  • warm the site of injury. Let’s just apply cold, it will help to relieve pain.



In dentistry, surgical removal of teeth is considered a serious operation, so after her possible complications. They arise from inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, dental caries on the other, also remove the teeth. The cause may be lowered immunity, lack of sterility of instruments of the dentist.

What are the possible complications when removed the teeth:

Bleeding. First aid — roll a sterile swab from the bandage. He should stand in a bleeding hole not less than an hour. If during this time the bleeding stopped, you need to go to the dentist.
Inflammation of the socket (alveolitis). After removal of the hole to form the clot, allowing the wound to heal faster. If not, there may be inflammation, accompanied by fever, pain and redness of the gums.
Inflammation of the maxillary sinus. If extraction of the tooth was on the upper jaw, inflammation of holes can pass into the inflammation of the maxillary sinuses. The situation is compounded if they penetrate the fragment root. This complication threatens reoperation. Rehabilitation takes a long time.
Suppurative inflammation. Occurs when the penetration into the wound infection. Treatment with antibiotics and antiseptic baths.

If you experience complications require urgent consultation of the doctor. Usually prescribed drugs (antibiotics), physiotherapy, in severe cases, injections into the gums.