Types of occlusion: physiological occlusion

What is the bite, what its types are considered valid and what must be adjusted? So the question often asked by many patients facing the problem of anomalous arrangement of the dentition, as well as a violation of the jaw. This branch of dentistry like orthodontics, considering the occlusion as the ratio of dentition in the tightly closed jaws. Experts identify different types of occlusion, each of which has some peculiarities. When the diagnosis in a patient with anomalous ratios of the dentition is assigned a specific treatment, which is carried out with the use of special orthodontic appliances.

Characterization of physiological occlusion and its types

In medical practice the term «occlusion» refers to the location of all items in the mouth. Until approximately 13-15 years of age the child’s intensive growth and the formation of the jaws, so in this period talking about the temporary occlusion. In fact, such time is considered the most appropriate for the purposes of correction and treatment, since it is possible to influence the location of the teeth without applying maximum efforts.
After 15 years, adolescents have already formed a permanent occlusion, and adjust it much more difficult, but still possible. Actually, distinguish between different types of malocclusion in humans, which can be divided into two groups:

  1. correct;
  2. abnormal.

Each of these species the bite has certain characteristics and it is important to be able to distinguish between them, in order to seek help.
Physiological occlusion is a tight connection of the dental arch is located on the upper and lower jaw. Due to this, a person acquires a Pro rata form, and there is no asymmetry.
Normal physiological phenomenon is the fact that the upper jaw slightly covers the bottom. This arrangement of the dentition is considered as physiological and does not require any treatment.

What is the role of correct physiological types of occlusion in a person’s life?

  • this arrangement of the teeth contributes to the normal formation of the dental system for a long time;
  • occurs proper development of speech and chewing — swallowing functions;
  • the load on the joints of the lower jaw is distributed evenly;
  • periodontal fields manages to keep the tissue healthy.

In fact, the right types of occlusion play an important role in the aesthetic appearance of a person, because you can smile and not worry about the defects of the dentition. There are different types of physiological occlusion, and each of them has some features:

  1. Orthognathic occlusion is characterized by the so-called exemplary position. This means that the lower jaw slightly overlaps the lower, and it is considered an absolute norm.
  2. Progenesis bite may be confused with incorrect position of teeth as the lower jaw slightly forward. However, this projection is not so significant to ruin a tight closure of the jaws. It is precisely because of such features progenesis kind of bite will take to natural.
  3. Bite something like progenesis , but still there are some differences. With direct occlusion of the upper row of teeth overlaps the lower, that allows the cutters to leak with each other. This type of bite is considered a natural, however, still it has one shortcoming. Often people come to the specialist for the reason that a bite causes rapid Erasure of tooth enamel.
  4. Bobrovnitskii bite is characterized by the fact that there is a forward extension of both upper and lower dentition. Despite this, this type of occlusion, it is quite natural and does not require any correction. In this type there is heavy closing of dentition, and they do not hinder each other when performing basic functions.
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It should be remembered that for natural dentition characteristically proper and smooth shape of the dental arches, as well as complete lack of crowding. Today to get rid of the defects of your teeth using special orthodontic appliances, and it can be done at any age.

Causes of dental problems

The formation of incorrect occlusion usually occurs in childhood, and it happens when the effects on the body some factors. Most often this abnormality is genetic in nature that is transmitted from parent to child. Often resulting pathology can be quite complex, and to get rid of them can sometimes be problematic. Often problems with the occlusion of the teeth appear even during prenatal development of the child, and this occurs most often when exposed to the body of pregnant women the following factors:

  • problems with metabolism;
  • intrauterine infection of the fetus;
  • anemia;
  • viral diseases.

After the baby is born cause improper formation of the teeth can be following factors:

  • trauma during childbirth;
  • artificial feeding;
  • thumb sucking or pacifiers;
  • late extraction of milk teeth.

In addition, abnormal types of occlusion can be formed because of insufficient amount of calcium and fluoride in the body, multiple caries and various injuries of the dentition.

Types of malocclusion

Medical practice shows that approximately 80% of people revealed improper occlusion of the teeth. This pathological condition requires the correction and treatment because it spoils the aesthetic appearance of a person. In addition, various anomalies of the dentition can cause various pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs.
In fact, the causes of abnormal types of malocclusion can be genetic predisposition, meaning the disease is passed from parents to children. In some cases, malocclusions can be acquired in the process of life with the progression in the body of various diseases, or when the effects on the body other adverse factors.
In some cases, however, experts say that person a wrong occlusion? In fact, a feature of the malocclusion are considered different deviations from the normal state when the closing of dentition. In addition, may display a lack of occlusion in some areas.

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Forms of malocclusion taking into account anomalies of occlusion

  • Open bite is characterized by lack of closure of some groups of teeth. This pathology is considered the most complex and causes problems with articulation, chewing and swallowing of food. In addition, the elongation of the lower face with muscle tension in the mouth area.
  • Deep bite occurs in the lower incisors overlap the upper, and more than half a crown. This pathology is often diagnosed in people of all ages. The danger of pathology lies in the fact that this form of occlusion causes people psychological discomfort due to the presence of aesthetic defects. Deep bite makes eating quite difficult, and the main load is on the front teeth. Frequently observed injury of the mucosa of the oral cavity and bother frequent headaches. In addition, the shape of the lips is not aesthetic, and the lower part of the face significantly shorter. In the absence of correction may develop additional abnormalities, breaks down the process of chewing and swallowing, and possible loss of teeth.
  • Cross-bite is characterized by a lack unilateral development of the upper or lower jaw. The main symptom of this pathology of the teeth is the pronounced asymmetry of the face. Cross-bite causes problems with chewing food, which leads to progression of diseases of the digestive system. In addition, it increases the risk of developing a disease like periodontitis. When a cross bite have problems with proper chewing and speech, and also increases the risk of dental caries.
  • Distal occlusion is the underdevelopment or overdevelopment of the lower dentition. In this form of caries increases the risk of dental caries, and problems arise during swallowing of food. In addition, when opening the mouth may develop pain and crunch in the temporal and mandibular joint. In such malocclusions there is a risk of development of pathologies, and periodontal problems with the conduct of some dental procedures.
  • Mesial occlusion is characterized by a marked extension of the lower jaw forward. In people with this abnormality marked protruding chin, and the face has a concave appearance. This form of occlusion becomes the reason of occurrence of problems with chewing, distorted face and develops periodontal disease. Such patients are quite difficult to carry out various dental manipulation, for example, implants and prosthetics.
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Some patients may reveal such pathology, as a dystopia. When this anomaly marks the location of some of the teeth out of place.

Prevention of malocclusion

In most cases, all malocclusions begin to form in childhood, so parents should closely monitor the development of the child and, if necessary, to take certain measures.

Adults need to know how is the bite and occlusion, some anomalies can appear in a child. In that case, if the child has no genetic predisposition to improper occlusion, parents are advised to observe the following rules:

  1. Carefully monitor your health during your pregnancy and remember that 20 weeks starts the active process of mineralization of the teeth. In this regard, during this period, you need to eat more foods containing calcium and fluoride.
  2. An important role in the formation of correct occlusion plays a proper feeding of the child. In a newborn the size of the upper jaw and lower due to the active work of the facial muscles during suckling is their alignment. In that case, if the child is on artificial feeding, the normal muscle function is often impaired.
  3. It is important to ensure that the child breathe through the nose. With the prevalence of oral or mixed breathing noted the slow growth of the upper jaw, and the result is a narrowing of the upper row of teeth. In that case, if the baby breathes mainly mouth, it threatens the development of poor occlusion.
  4. It is necessary to wean the child from bad habits in the form of thumb-sucking and pacifiers. A special danger of such habits present during the emergence of primary teeth and could face development problems with the bite.


Parents need to periodically show the child the dentist and to follow adequate nutrition. To diagnose kind of bite can only orthodontist, however, some signs of disease visible.

To signal problems with closing of dentition can protruding lip, crooked growing teeth and pushed forward the jaw. With the appearance of at least one of these signs you must seek the advice of a specialist.