White patches in the mouth adult
White patches in the mouth of an adult is the first sign of disease in the oral cavity, which is caused by a fungus Candida. These single-celled organisms superficially similar to yeast in a certain amount are present in the human microflora in all mucous membranes. In the event of a favorable environment for reproduction, there is a risk of the disease, as the fungus begins to grow, forming colonies. So developing candidiasis or thrush, bearing the discomfort, pain, itching and burning.
Causes of candidiasis
More than 150 known species of Candida. But only 20 of them can cause the disease. The most favorable habitat for them is alkaline. To trigger the active growth of mushrooms Candida can excess consumption of simple carbohydrates (sweet pastry, sugar, yeast dough, etc.).
If humans are not created favorable conditions for active growth, the Candida is covered with a solid protective shell to wait out this period. So formed chlamydospores. They are dangerous because they are very resistant to external influences and is able to spread from person to person, household way, sexually, through blood. Vector control can be host debris and animals.
Normally, the organism is round or oval in shape. But as soon as the human immunity begins to decline or there is a very favorable environment for reproduction, the bacteria begins to mutate. Cells begin to elongate, become like a stick. Reproduction occurs by budding. Thus, the formation of long chains of microorganisms that grow in large colonies.
While in the mucosa, Candida starts to penetrate deep into the epithelium. They secrete special enzymes that is able to completely destroy the structure of human cells. Hence, there are unpleasant symptoms in the outbreak of the disease.
The most common reasons that serve as the impetus for activation of the Candida are:
- immunodeficiency, a General decline in human immunity;
- hormonal disruption (pregnancy, age characteristics, metabolic disorders, etc.);
- diabetic pathology;
- diseases of the digestive system;
- prolonged use of corticosteroid drugs;
- the use of antibiotics;
- the deficiency of certain vitamin and minerals;
- effects of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer patients;
- the presence of such harmful habits as Smoking, use of narcotic substances;
- oral contraceptives;
- microtrauma of the mucous membrane;
- wearing dentures.
All that can lead to reduced immunity in the human body, promotes active growth of the fungus Candida.
The analysis for determination of disease
Diagnosing yeast infection is not difficult. It is sufficient to examine the patient’s oral cavity and to collect the anamnesis on the basis of the manifested symptoms and the possible causes of the disease.
Mucous how to see a doctor, covered in a patina characteristic white hue. When you try to remove it, it is possible to detect reddened mucous membranes. Severe irritation may be accompanied by bleeding. To definitively diagnose, the scrapings sent for microscopic examination in the laboratory.
Depending on in which place was formed thrush, a specialist appoint additional methods of research. This will help to determine the scope and degree of tissue damage. So, if you experience candidiasis in the larynx from the pharynx take the swab. It is sent for bacteriological examination to determine the real causative agent of the disease. The results of the analysis of the chosen treatment strategy. Diagnosis using endoscopic techniques allows you to identify yeast infection in internal organs: stomach, intestine, duodenum, esophagus.
Contrast radiography allows to determine how extensively the disease. The patient drinks a special solution with colorants, then make images of the body using x-rays. Affected areas are painted and contrast in the picture that makes it easy to determine their contours. Compulsory clinical analysis of blood, determine the level of blood sugar.
How does a yeast infection in the mouth
The disease starts with the fact that fungi are embedded in the epithelial cells of the mucosa. As reproduction and active growth, they secrete special enzymes, which are damaging to the surrounding tissue. All of this leads to pain and hypersensitivity.
Candida cells grow and multiply very quickly. When the colonies grow, clusters of mushrooms are beginning to rise above the surface of the mucous membrane. Gradually appear white cheesy plaque in the mouth. Plaque consists not only of the mushrooms themselves, it includes their waste products, and other bacteria, food debris, destroyed epithelial cells, keratin, and fibrin.
The growth of the affected areas fuse together, forming white spots in the mouth — plaque. They cover not only the inner part of the cheeks, but also the gums, tongue, palate, tonsils. Often affects the corners of the lips, covered with white flakes and scales.
In the initial stage of the disease plaque can be easily removed. However, it already reveals a red inflamed surface, and ulcers. If the disease goes into running stage, itching and burning in the mouth of the patient is greatly enhanced. Can occur allergic reactions and irritations all over the body. It is the result of intoxication and a sharp decline in immunity. The patient becomes very hard to swallow or eat. Especially strong irritation felt while taking hot, sour and spicy food.
This period can increase the body temperature of the patient. This is the response of the body trying to cope with the excessive proliferation of fungi and eliminate their waste products.
Common treatment of candidiasis
On the basis of a confirmed diagnosis, as well as collecting all the relevant data about the individual physiological characteristics of the patient and the reasons for the development of the disease, the doctor will determine a treatment plan. Because often the reason for development of yeast infection gets a worsening of other chronic diseases, you begin medical therapy with him.
If candidiasis struck mucous membrane of the mouth, the treatment is a periodontist or dentist. With the spread of fungal infection to other organs it is necessary to seek the assistance of a more narrow specialists — infectious diseases or medical Mycology.
The whole process of treatment of yeast infection are divided into two main areas — General and local. General treatment is aimed at strengthening the whole body, restoring immunity, the causes and symptoms of the underlying disease that caused the thrush. General treatment helps to eliminate the fungi Candida to other organs and to eliminate the chlamydospores, freeing the person from being a carrier of infection. Prescribe the following medications:
- Antibiotics (Levorin, Nystatin, Amphotericin, Amphoglucaminum). If oral medications do not give the expected result, prescribed injections of more powerful tools.
- Antifungal medications — imidazoles (Econazole. Miconazole, Clotrimazole).
- Antimicrobial and antiparasitic drugs (fluconazole, Diflucan, Nizoral, Dekumanova caramel).
Prescribed vitamins of group b, C and PP. They help to strengthen the body and activate the immune system. Thanks to their powerful antioxidant properties in the body started the cleansing process, restores the natural defense of the human body. In order to eliminate Allergy symptoms of intoxication, prescribe a treatment such as calcium Gluconate, Diphenhydramine together with Suprastin, Fenkarol, Pipolfen.
Since a yeast infection disrupts the metabolism of iron in the body, there is a deficit. Therefore, doctors in the period of comprehensive treatment prescribe a treatment iron supplements and products.
To accelerate the recovery can injection oral vaccine immunotherapy (pentoksil, Metiluratsil). These drugs can not only speed up the healing process, but significantly strengthen the immune system, are a good prevention of the re-development of the disease and further its spread. The active ingredients of these drugs contribute to the production of gamma-globulins and leukocytes that actively counteract Candida.
Local therapy aims to eliminate painful symptoms and the root cause of the spread of fungal microorganisms. Treatment is done using drugs that are not absorbed into the blood, and render only the effects on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Because it stops the growth of fungi, heal damage caused by the activity of fungi. For this purpose:
- aniline dyes (brilliant green, fukortsin solution, methylene blue);
- iodine preparations for applications;
- Nystatin and Levorinovuyu ointment.
Great importance is proper care of the mouth and dentures. They are treated with antiseptic and antifungal solutions. The rinse helps to clear the mouth of plaque and accelerate the healing of wounds and sores. Good effect give solutions of baking soda, borax, boric acid and iodine with water. Rinsing the mouth is necessary every 2 to 3 hours after meals and at night. On average, the treatment takes from 7 to 14 days. Even if relief came soon, it is impossible to interrupt the treatment.
In order to prevent the recurrence of thrush, it is necessary to treat all chronic disease and support the immune system in good condition. This is the best prevention of candidiasis. Regular visits to the dentist, a professional cleaning and dental care, proper care of removable dental prostheses to provide good protection of the body against the spread of fungal infection.
It is equally essential to a healthy lifestyle, active sport, more fresh air, to eat more fresh vegetables, fruits and dairy products.
Diet during illness
While thrush in the stage of rapid development, the patient must adhere to a special diet. Since the received food triggers the formation of beneficial microflora for reproduction of fungi, it is necessary to create conditions for changing it. So completely limiting intake of confectionery and bakery products. Doctors recommend that you avoid eating spicy and salty foods, because oral mucosa is irritated. A painful and burning sensation will only intensify when taking such products. It is important to consider the consistency and temperature of food. It is necessary during illness to consume only warm and semi-liquid food.
After recovery, you can return to a normal diet. However, it is recommended to eliminate from the diet those foods which caused the appearance of thrush for at least a few months. This will prevent relapse and recurrence.
During the period of treatment allowed the use of products such as unleavened cakes, lean meats and fish, greens, vegetables, garlic, carrots, dairy products, herbal teas, fresh juices, natural oils (linseed, olive, coconut), berries with a high content of vitamin C (cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries), unsweetened fruit, nuts and seeds.
Herbal medicine against plaque
In addition to traditional drug therapy, physicians often prescribe herbs. Herbal medicine have many recipes that will help to effectively fight the infection:
- Calendula. The plant has strong antibacterial properties. It consists of volatile, natural antibiotics and many essential oils. Infusions and decoctions of calendula relieve pain, to quickly eliminate inflammation.
- Juice cranberries and cranberry. Using fresh juice of these berries can quickly destroy a colony of Candida. Them rinse your mouth, trying to hold as long as possible inside. Treatment juices is effective, but long and lasts one month.
- Onion juice, garlic and wormwood. Juice of these plants lubricate the affected area in the oral cavity. Their action has a positive effect after a few days. Volatile quickly destroy pathogens and significantly improve immunity. Treatment should be carried out for 2-3 weeks.
- St. John’s wort. This plant has strong healing properties, acts as an antimicrobial agent. Decoction of St. John’s wort rinse your mouth every 2 hours for 2-3 weeks.
- Rosemary is a strong antifungal agent. Used as a means for rinsing. It helps to stop the growth of fungi and effectively destroy their colonies.
- The oak bark. Has a tannic and astringent properties. This prevents the penetration of infection into the deeper layers of epithelial tissue in the oral cavity. Well heals wounds and contributes to the strengthening of local immunity.
Once appears white film, it is necessary to consult a doctor who will select the qualified treatment.