Anesthesia after laparoscopic surgery: types, action, and consequences
The technique of laparoscopic surgery has long earned its primacy among the other methods of surgical interventions. Its dignity was marked as surgeons and patients. Inspection conducted by means of laparoscopy, gives a reliable estimate of the patient’s condition and allows accurate detection and cure any pathology. This technique has a low traumatism of the operated region, minimal wound healing period and rehabilitation of patient with excellent cosmetic effect. This operation is widely used in gynecology. Minimal laparoscopic surgery does not injure the body of young women and help to continue to experience the joy of motherhood.
Anesthesia helps the surgeon painless the patient to perform the surgery. Anesthesia has a protective effect and provides the desired relaxed state of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall during laparoscopy. But what is the anesthesia to agree, if you are ready for surgery?
The preparation of the operation under General anesthesia
You are guaranteed to need to provide effective anesthesia, maintenance of physiological activity before, during and after surgery. And also to warn and protect the operated from any possible aggressive factors (biological, infectious, physical and chemical). Multicomponent anesthesia or anesthesia is toxic, controlled with medication, deep sleep. After the introduction of anesthesia, the patient’s condition changes drastically. Then temporary loss of consciousness, absence of reflexes, functions of sensory organs; skeletal muscle relaxation.
Applied in practice, the types of anesthesia:
- Local anesthesia and its variants.
- Inhalation anesthesia.
- Neingalyatsionnyh anesthesia.
- Combined anesthesia.
- Combined anaesthesia.
It is from the routes of administration of drugs will depend on the choice of the surgeon, what types of anesthesia will be operated.
The types of General anesthesia used for laparoscopy
In most cases for successful laparoscopy is used endotracheal anesthesia or spinal anesthesia (local anesthesia). Spinal anesthesia acts by turning off the sensitivity of a particular nerve or nerve plexus, while retaining the self-consciousness and his ability to be operated upon. In certain aspects of this method of anesthesia during laparoscopy is indispensable when you need to keep the vital body functions in patients with any pathologies or in patients in old age.
Endotracheal anesthesia, is characterized by the fact that getting narcotic active drug will pass through the tube from anesthetic machine. Free the airway will be secured by a tube introduced into the trachea. This type of General anesthesia is quite common in the medical world. It is often used not only in laparoscopy but also in operations on the neck, face, head. Of the benefits can be noted, that under endotracheal anesthesia eliminates the possibility of penetration into the airway of vomit or blood, there is a chance to reduce the number of used drugs to improve gas exchange.
The main stages of changes in the period of narcosis
Of course, drugs cause the inhibition of all organs and systems. After receiving the anesthesia in the body is phasing changes in consciousness, breathing, circulation. Therefore, in medicine there are several stages that characterize the depth of anesthesia.
The action phase of anesthesia:
- Loss pain.
- Surgical stage.
Possible complications after anaesthesia:
- Vomiting. Stomach contents may enter the trachea or bronchi, which leads to respiratory failure, subsequent anoxia (low oxygen content in the organism or individual organs and tissues).
- Other breathing disorders that are associated with the patency of oxygen.
- Complications associated with the introduction of the tube into the respiratory system. Here can be damaged teeth, vocal cords, esophagus, one of the bronchi. Can appear complications in the derivation of the endotracheal tube in their trachea at its inflection.
- Disorders of the organs of blood circulation. In this case, lowered blood pressure, impaired heart function, vascular-motor center, disturbed heart rhythm, can occur heart failure.
- Swelling of the anterior Central nervous system.
- Disruption of peripheral nerves.
To provoke the problem as incorrect technique of General anesthesia, and the negative impact of anesthetic components on vital organs. All the complex effects of anesthesia in urgent need carrying out cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The outcome of the entire completion of any surgery, including laparoscopy, depends on the skilled work of the anaesthetist.
Preparation of the patient for General anesthesia:
- Specialist should find out what are the ailments other than the main, because of which a planned operation.
- If the patient’s life is not in danger, it is recommended to routinely perform the treatment of all accompanying diseases, a system of measures to improve the General condition, if necessary — treatment of the initial part of the digestive system, including the gums and teeth.
- The specialist should identify possible allergic reactions to the drugs that will be used during the surgical intervention and preparation for anesthesia. And also to clarify information about possible transactions with the use of any anesthesia.
- The anesthesiologist paid special attention to the shape of the face, chest, neck structure, the severity of subcutaneous fat.
- An important factor is the training of the operated to anaesthesia: cleansing the intestinal tract by removing the contents from the stomach, lavage of the rectum and colon by enema.
- Before the operation the patient is prepared for General anaesthesia and surgery certain medications prescribed by your doctor.
- Before the operation re-inspected the oral cavity, if you have a detachable jaw or dentures – they are removed.
Control over the depth and efficiency of the flow of anesthesia:
- After anesthesia specialists all the time control the force of the circulation, check that blood pressure was normal, measure the pulse rate every 15 minutes.
- Using professional monitors, the anesthesiologist can determine electroencephalographic degree of immersion in an artificial sleep and muscle relaxation in a patient after drug administration.
- Ventilation of the lungs and metabolic changes after administration of a dose of anesthesia during a laparoscopy are controlled through careful study of acid-base status of blood of the patients.
In some cases, you may be assigned additional anesthesia to patients after surgery.
The course introduced General anesthesia — registration card
All the time while the patient is under anesthesia, doctors are required to record information obtained during and after surgery, anesthetic card. Here should be noted the magnitude of the heart rate, blood pressure, Central venous pressure, breath rate. Doctors should reflect on the card all done some moments of anesthesia and laparoscopy, indicating the administered doses of active drug and a muscle-relaxing substances.
At the end of the operation sums all the entered medicines and recorded the time of entry into the body, all the data on the conducted manipulations have to be made to the card. Also made the mark about all the complications which arose during the period of surgical treatment and the anesthesia. Map of anesthesia must be glued in individual card with information about the development of the disease patient.