Examination of the brain vessels and neck
Diagnosis of pathologies of brain vessels and neck area is necessary for subsequent effective etiotropic and pathogenetic treatment aimed at restoring normal blood flow to the structures of the Central nervous system. We used different research methods.
Why do we need diagnostics of vessels of the head?
Most pathological processes of the structures and tissues of the Central nervous system and the cervical spine is accompanied by a disruption of blood flow. This leads to deterioration of the power of narocito, resulting in compromised functional activity. This condition aggravates the course of the main pathological process and complicates the subsequent treatment.
Advanced examination of brain vessels and neck is aimed at the visualization of their walls, as well as the intensity and direction of blood flow. Performed diagnosis allows the physician to adjust the treatment to improve the functional activity of brain structures by improving their nutrition and sufficient supply of oxygen.
What methods are used for research?
To determine the degree of impaired blood flow in arterial and venous vessels of the brain, neck, and localization of the pathological obstacles to blood flow applied modern methods of instrumental and functional diagnostics.
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Instrumental examination of arteries and veins
Instrumental methods of diagnostics of diseases of arteries and veins is aimed at the visualization of the walls of the lumen and to identify structural changes in them, as well as the pathological presence of obstacles to blood flow. These methods of instrumental diagnostics allow us to establish the localization of the different pathological changes. These include:
- Radiography of the head (craniography) and neck – allows you to determine the condition of the skeleton this region of the body, changing the anatomical relations of the neck vertebrae and skull bones, which indirectly affects the state of the vessels, especially in the area of their passage through the natural bone channels. To visualise the arterial and venous radiography is performed with the introduction of a special contrast medium.
- Computer tomography – visualization of the tissues, arteries and veins. This method has high separation capacity. This is made possible by conducting layer-by-layer scanning of tissues of the investigated area of the body. Then the monitor displays a three-dimensional image, allowing to identify even small changes in the structure of the tissues and blood vessels.
- Magnetic resonance imaging – for layered visualization of tissue instead of x-rays is used the effect of a nuclear resonance. This method eliminates the radiation load on the organism of the examined person.
- Echoencephalography – to visualize tissues and structures of the head using an ultrasonic wave. A sensor detects reflected from the tissue, the ultrasound to construct images on the monitor. With the help of this method checks the state of the brain, its ventricles, and are rendered volumetric pathological inclusions that may constrict the vein or artery.
- Vascular Doppler (Doppler ultrasound or Doppler ultrasound) to evaluate the state of blood flow uses the Doppler effect, which is different to the frequency of the reflected ultrasonic waves from the approaching and receding relative to the sensor (source wave) of the object, which in this case is blood. To get the image on the monitor screen, use duplex scanning.
- Triplex scanning – is a more modern modification of Doppler ultrasound in which the movement of blood on the screen is displayed as a color image that allows the physician to more accurately identify changes in the direction and intensity of blood flow.
Each method of instrumental diagnostics of structural changes of the arterial and venous vessels of the head and neck has certain advantages and disadvantages. Selection of studies during the execution of diagnostic procedures performed by the doctor individually, depending on the presumptive diagnosis.
Functional methods of examination
This form of diagnosis gives the opportunity to examine changes in the functional activity of the different arteries and veins that affect the intensity of blood flow in their lumen. With the help of this examination the doctor can indirectly determine the degree of severity of structural changes of tissues or vessels, as well as their localization. Methods of functional examination to date include such techniques as:
- Rheovasography – the technique lies in the local resistance measurement of the skin region of the examined vessel. According to the severity of the change in resistance is a conclusion about the presence or absence of impaired blood flow.
- Electroencephalography – with the help of a special device electroencephalograph, the doctor performs a check of the electrical activity of the scalp, which changes as a result of violations of the functional activity of brain tissue.
- Electroneuromyography is the essence of the method of functional diagnostics is to record the action potential occur on the surface of the skin on the background of functional activity of skeletal muscles. This survey is informative in determining the innervation of the muscles of the upper shoulder girdle, caused by changes in the cervical spine.
For a reliable diagnosis changes of the vasculature of the head and neck, the doctor usually prescribes a combination of several research methods. Before to check the vessels, he determines the tactics of treatment and diagnostic measures for each patient individually.