Removal of the ovaries after 50 years: implications and features
Gynecological diseases occupy the leading position among all diseases of the female half of the population. Sooner or later, every woman, regardless of age, closely acquainted with any gynecological condition. It could be a hormonal imbalance in the female body, cervical erosion, polycystic ovary syndrome, fibroids, endometritis, inflammation of the ovaries and appendages, and many other diseases.
Many gynecological diseases, especially occurring in women aged 50 – 60 years, can lead to serious consequences. So, if in women of reproductive age is the most common complication of gynecological diseases are serious problems with conception, including infertility, in women older most often, there is a risk of degeneration of a disease in a malignant neoplasm.
In the treatment of gynecological ailments is not always possible to achieve positive results only due to conservative treatment. At advanced stages of the disease medical therapy is not always effective enough, so in some cases need a surgical removal of the ovaries. Women who have ovaries removed, panic and wonder what the consequences will bring this operation and can return to an active, fulfilling life after removal of ovaries?
What is a surgical removal of the ovaries?
Surgical removal of the ovaries has been called ovariectomy. It should be noted that ovariectomy doctors try to resort only in the most extreme cases, possibly giving preference to organ-sparing treatment. This is very important in relation to the treatment of nulliparous women or women who dream in the future to once again experience the joy of motherhood.
The decision on removal of the paired female reproductive organs is accepted only by the attending specialist, after a detailed study of the history and clinical picture of the disease. In women 50 – 60 years with extinct reproductive function of the question of holding ovariectomy is a little easier. In the majority of cases need surgical removal of the ovaries occurs when a woman has hormone-dependent gynecological diseases type. It could be a cancerous tumor or other malignant neoplasm affecting the female reproductive organs.
It is known that the ovaries are paired organs located on either side of the uterus. Despite its small size, the ovaries perform a extremely important function produce female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. This disruption in the normal production of estrogen and progesterone acts as the main causes of many hormone-dependent gynecological diseases. Therefore, the removal of the ovaries contributes to the cessation of production of sex hormones, which in turn helps to reduce the tumor process or to stop development of gynecological pathology.
In some cases, impossible to do without holding ovariectomy? The main indications for surgical removal of the ovaries are the following.
- Cancer a tumor or cyst, one or two ovaries or the breast. One of the most effective measures of treatment of malignant tumors in the reproductive organs or mammary glands is surgical removal of the ovaries. In such cases, oophorectomy often remains the only possible way to preserve the life and health of women.
- The presence of a woman salpingo-oophoritis – inflammation in the fallopian tubes and ovaries. The removal of reproductive organs is performed only in the case of acute form of the disease accompanied by heavy bleeding and copious purulent secretions.
- In women younger than 50 years delete the paired reproductive organs is performed in the case of ectopic pregnancy.
- Long-term uterine bleeding of unknown nature, accompanied by intense pain in the lower abdomen.
- Chronic endometriosis and irreversible inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs.
- Apoplexy is one of the main indications for surgical removal of the ovaries. Apoplexy is a sudden rupture of the ovary of a pathological nature, accompanied by intense bleeding or hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity.
In such cases, oophorectomy can act as an independent method of surgical treatment or combined with other surgical procedures, most often a hysterectomy – removal of the uterus.
The preparation and conduct of ovariectomy
Before surgery the woman must undergo special training. This preparatory phase is to carry out all necessary medical and laboratory tests. Must pass a General analysis of blood and urine tests, PAP test, biochemistry of blood tests to determine hormonal levels of the body, undergo ultrasound examination of organs of small pelvis, colposcopy, computed tomography. Are and total body examination, including ECG, chest x-ray and, if necessary, and other internal organs.
About a week before surgery to stop taking any medicines to minimize the use of alcohol and to give up other bad habits. The day before the operation, should observe the hungry mode, and on the day of surgery not even drink water, as surgical removal of the ovaries is performed using General anesthesia. The operation can be done in two methods – laparoscopic and laparotomies.
Laparotomy is a traditional surgery, in which the excision of the ovaries is performed through a large incision on the anterior abdominal wall. Such a cut can reach 10 cm and is performed both horizontally and vertically. Today, an increasing number of surgeons prefer laparoscopy as laparoscopiceski method carries multiple drawbacks. For example, after the traditional surgical treatment for abdominal scar remains rough, and the recovery period after surgery lasts a very long time. In addition, when conducting a laparotomy, an extremely high probability of different severe consequences and complications, so many experts have resorted to the laparoscopic technique.
Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive operative technology, where all the essential surgical procedures are conducted through a special device – a laparoscope. This method is considered one of the most gentle and safe, with minimal complications and short recovery period. On the anterior abdominal wall are three thin puncture, in which the surgeon inserts a laparoscope with a miniature video camera on the end, as well as all the necessary tools. The image from the camera is displayed on a monitor so the doctor can carefully monitor every movement.
The operation itself lasts from 2 to 4 hours depending on the complexity and the extent of the disease. After the laparoscopy the abdominal cavity is not left gross scars.
The consequences of amputation of the ovaries
It is worth noting that women 50 – 60 years is much easier to tolerate surgery to remove the ovaries than younger women. This is because in menopause ovarian function gradually fades away and removal of the pair of organs will not be for the body a severe shock to the women.
What consequences entail the holding of ovariectomy?
- As the ovaries take a direct part in the elaboration of female sex hormones, it is quite natural that their amputation leads to major hormonal imbalances. Sex hormone estrogen is involved in many metabolic processes and the rapid decline of estrogen in the blood contributes to violation of these metabolic processes. Do middle-aged women begin to fully manifest all the symptoms and typical signs of menopause. To eliminate them, recommended hormone therapy, but keep in mind that if a woman has hormone-dependent neoplastic processes of the hormonal drugs is strictly prohibited.
- Deterioration of General health – weakness, decreased performance, fatigue, headaches and migraines, fever, chills.
- «Jumps» in blood pressure, disorders of the cardiovascular system.
- A sharp increase in body mass subject to the usual diet.
- Increase risk of development of diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, osteoporosis.
- The decline in the quality of sexual life until the complete loss of interest in intimacy.
Consequences surgical removal of the ovaries has been called post-castration syndrome. This unpleasant phenomenon «meets» approximately 70% of all women with residual ovaries. Usually, the first signs of post-castration syndrome occur in 3 – 4 weeks after ovarioektomii. The formation of the syndrome has a direct link with the hormonal function of the paired reproductive organs. If the onset of menopause extinction of the functioning of the ovaries occurs gradually, after intervention paired organs immediately stop its work, that gets the strongest stress to the body of any woman.
Characteristics of post-castration syndrome
- The main role in the post-castration syndrome is given to vegetative-vascular disorders. These often include so-called «hot flashes», sudden changes in blood pressure, tachycardia, pain in heart, increased sweating.
- Various disorders in the functioning of the endocrine system, disruptions of metabolic processes. Most often they are expressed in the form of obesity or hyperlipidemia.
- The effects of mental and emotional nature in women – apathy, irritability, sleep disturbances, mood swings, tearfulness, loss of interest in life, and aggressiveness.
Other signs of post-castration syndrome in women older than 50 years occur much later. Deficiency of female sex hormones, particularly estrogen, has a negative impact on the functioning of the urogenital system. This can be expressed in the development of cystitis, colpitis, tsistalgii. In addition, the lack of estrogen and progesterone the most disastrous impact on the appearance of women’s skin quickly loses its elasticity and ages, the hair becomes brittle and lifeless, begins to fall hard. Women have thinning, brittle teeth and nails, increased dryness of the skin and mucosal tissues.
In order to reduce the symptoms of post-castration syndrome, and to help the body recover after removal of the ovaries, should be strictly adhered to recommended by your healthcare professional. Here are some of the most important rules of rehabilitation.
- Regardless of which method was produced by ovariectomy, postoperative wounds and scars should be carefully treated with special antiseptic solutions.
- In the first week after surgery is strictly forbidden to bathe in the bath or shower. All hygiene treatments are carried out by wet wiping.
- Sports, physical labor is strictly prohibited as weight lifting. But it should be emphasized that in the prevention of indigestion and the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels recommended leisurely Hiking.
- Carefully watch your diet. You want the menu were high-quality, natural products containing vitamins, minerals and fiber. The diet should include plenty of fluids.
- During the rehabilitation period is not allowed to drink alcoholic beverages and Smoking.
- For 8 – 10 weeks after surgical removal of the ovaries should observe pelvic rest. A return to the intimacy possible only with the permission of the attending physician.
- Definitely need to undergo regular preventive examinations by a gynecologist and mammologist.