The structure of the uterus: functions and pathology of the female body

The main body of the reproductive system of the female body is the uterus. The organ is a muscular organ, hollow inside. It provides menstrual function and fetal development. Where is the uterus in women and what structure is? What is the purpose of the body? What are the anomalies of structure are there?

The main parameters

How does the uterus? Body has a pear-shaped, with the narrower part facing downwards. Uterus women who have not yet given birth, has a length of 7-8 cm and a width of 4-5 cm, the weight is approximately 50 g. the thickness of the body wall can be up to 3 cm, rather dense. If a woman gave birth, the size can be increased by 2-3 cm, and the weight of the uterus reaches 100 gr.

What is the structure of the uterus?

Includes three main components: the body of the uterus, the cervix and the uterine fundus. As already mentioned, the body of the uterus has grushepodobnoe form, where the narrower part – the neck is directed downwards, and the fundus is at the top. During pregnancy, the gynecologist determines the location of the body, depending on week of pregnancy in the stomach.

The uterus has layers like:

  • endometrium (inner layer).
  • perimetry (outer layer);
  • myometrium;

The inner layer of the uterus is the mucous membrane, which tend to change each month. The purpose of the endometrium reproductive organ is to create for the fertilized eggs ability to attach to the uterus. Anatomy of the uterus is provided by nature: every month the endometrium lines the cavity in anticipation of a fertilized egg. If the egg is not fertilized, pregnancy does not occur, is the exclusion of the endometrium endometrium and its output of blood outside. This day begins a phenomenon that is called menstruation, they last for 3-5 days.

READ  The size of the ovaries at menopause of the norm

Myometrium is an important layer, providing a stretching of the body to large sizes during pregnancy.

Covers on perimetry – uterine layer which is a serous peritoneal membrane.


The location of the uterus in women in the pelvis in front of rectum and behind the bladder. In the normal position of the longitudinal axis of the genitals is along the axis of the pelvis. Minor deviations can be considered the norm. But in some pathologies, the normal position of the uterus and appendages may vary. Such pathologies include bending, drooping or loss of reproductive organ, situated behind and.

Localization of the uterus depends directly on the muscles and ligaments that hold it in the correct position. If muscle tone is under the influence of any factors is weakened, the genital organ may fall partially or completely fall out of the genital slit. To ignore the condition, and is unlikely to succeed. While walking on the fallen discomfort.

Structure and localization of the cervix

Considering the bottom of the uterus and the body in General, you need to pay attention to the neck, because it is equally important and has an impact on the course of pregnancy. What size is the neck of the genitals, will depend on the ability of a woman to bear a child. In women with a short cervix and a high risk of miscarriage. Important neck and in the process of labor. From the location of disclosure will depend on the success of delivery.

The cervix connects the uterus of the female genital organ with the vagina has the shape of a cylinder, whose length is 3 cm, with a width of 2.5 cm, These parameters can change during pregnancy, and also due to the age of the woman. So, shortening of cervical dimensions during pregnancy speaks of the approaching childbirth.

READ  Seal sex lip: causes and treatment

Using a mirror, a gynecologist can easily see the cervix on the gynecological chair, but the bottom of the uterus to consider so impossible. It is located deep in the vagina (8-12 cm), and before it is bladder. Towards the end of pregnancy the cervix genitals can move to the center of the pelvis.

What are the functions of the uterus?

The main purpose is to take the fertilized egg and nourishment of the fetus that will develop in the cavity, until, until the time of birth.

On average, the pregnancy lasts from 38 to 42 weeks. Muscle fiber on the growth of the fetus (in the case of multiple pregnancy fetuses) being adapted to increase in size. When it comes to a certain point, under the influence of oxytocin the muscles begin to involuntarily contract. This phenomenon is called contractions, which are the precursors of the onset of labour. At this time, the uterus begins the process of pushing the baby towards the cervix, the latter begins to expand, giving your child access to the vagina. The contractions are painful for women sometimes it even seems that the pain is unbearable.

Pregnancy in some cases is the cause of the weakening of ligaments and muscles, which leads to the displacement of the body from its normal position. If the offset slightly, this is normal. Ultrasonic diagnostics allows to determine a measure of the displacement.

Possible pathology

To the wrong position cause some pathology, but also in the structure can be anomalies, among which are the most common:

  • absence (agenesis);
  • small size (hypoplasia);
  • has two cavities (two-horned);
  • the bottom is caved in (saddle);
  • two full on (doubling).
READ  How to treat endometriosis of the uterus in the home: methods

The genital are susceptible to malfunction and disease. More common diseases such as fibroids and cervical erosion. Frequently diagnosed benign tumors (polyps, fibroids), there are detections of malignant tumors (cancer), having a hostile to health and life of women in nature.

Despite the fact that the pathology of the female reproductive system today are treated successfully, you need to understand that the earlier the disease is detected, the better the chances for complete cure. But there are cases when treatment is not possible (the presence of congenital abnormalities of organ removal for medical reasons, improper position of the uterus in women), even in this case, there is a possibility to become a mother (surrogacy), so do not despair.

To avoid health problems and to detect irregularities in the reproductive system will help regular checkups at the gynecologist (at least every six months), as well as personal hygiene and correct lifestyle.