Osteoarthritis of the TMJ: the mechanism of the disease
A disease such as arthritis of the temporomandibular joint, can be caused by different reasons. In particular, it may provoke such violations:
- chronic inflammatory process in joints and a big load on them, especially on the head of the mandible;
- infectious lesions;
- neuromuscular disorder in the facial area;
- loss of teeth, their increased abrasion or deformation.
All the above factors can occur individually or in combination. Arthrosis of the TMJ is a dangerous disease. To delay the trip to the doctor is impossible.
The reasons of development and symptoms
The causes of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint is quite diverse. It develops when the cartilage that covers the surface of the joint (head of the condylar process), have undergone degeneration. It so happens that the cartilage completely disappears, which is why there is perforation of the disc. Rebuilding bone in the body leads to deformation of the head, it changes its shape. Only slight regeneration of cartilage.
A significant role in the development of the disease play a changes in tooth number and abnormalities in the cycle of movement of the lower jaw. Due to the changing load violated the metabolic processes in the cells and tissues of the joint itself. Later develop different types of pathologies of the movement of the lower jaw become asynchronous.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are as follows:
- a dull, aching pain that increases with increasing load;
- when movement of the joint there is a crunching or clicking;
- jaw bad moves, the lower components are shifted to the side, it becomes impossible to fully open the mouth;
- the chewed food passes from one side of the jaw, and attempt to do it in another part of the mouth causes pain.
Arthrosis of the temporomandibular sport is developing quickly. The mechanism of injury contribute to TMJ a different kind of infectious disease causing inflammation in the joint. Large role played by the abrasion of the teeth and their absence or continued use of dentures, if it was incorrectly restored the surface of the dentition. In some cases after suffering patient of influenza and the formation of the rheumatism may manifest symptoms of the temporomandibular joint.
To identify all factors that have led to the development of TMJ disease, using various laboratory test. Also use models of patient’s jaws, which are mounted in the articulator. This allows you to examine the teeth, the process of Erasure and occlusion.
Diagnosis of disease
Osteoarthritis must be distinguished from various disorders of the neuromuscular nature and arthritis that mainly occur in people under the age of 50 years. They develop rapidly and are accompanied by severe pain. Arthrosis occurs in a rather slow pace and often occurs in people older than 45-55 years.
Acute arthritis can be identified by a characteristic swelling of the tissues around the joint. The disease causes malaise, fever, sleep disturbance and loss of appetite. The symptoms of chronic arthritis resemble arthritis, but has a sharp and shooting character of the pain. In the pathology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and clicking occur when chewing. The patient complains of headache, noise in ears, decrease in hearing threshold.
To find out the patient is suffering from arthritis or disorders in the nerves and muscles, use of manual method and x-ray. Under anesthesia can reveal disease of the temporomandibular joint, but this will not relieve the pain and will not improve mouth opening.
The doctor according to the diagnosis needs to determine how to conduct treatment. It is necessary to determine the sequence of the application of selected methods of treatment, dosage and duration of use of drugs, allowing to remove the symptoms of the temporomandibular joint. You want to apply the whole complex of therapeutic measures, including orthopedic and dental methods.
Orthopedic and drug treatments
In the treatment of osteoarthritis of the TMJ prescribe a range of measures, including the use of drugs, physical therapy, use of orthotics, surgery. Orthopedics needed to resolve the overloading of the jaw joints. This is achieved by improving the shape of teeth and their ranks. The treatment itself is divided into several stages:
- fix your teeth and occlusive contact of the patient;
- correct dentition;
- restore the shape of the teeth;
- normalize the smoothness and accuracy of movements in the mandibular joint.
The first of several stages aimed at correcting damaged teeth and their ranks. The last type of treatment used, if necessary, the use of the prosthesis, which should go well with all the components of the lower jaw. With the possible grinding of the teeth.
Orthopedics combined with the use of therapeutic drugs. Therapeutic methods eliminate excessive contact between the teeth, which affects the joints and muscles of the face. The normalization of the shape of the teeth and their ranges is through the use of crowns, bridges and partial denture.
The podiatrist needs to improve the status of the articular heads and bring them to normal position. This is achieved by the following means:
- the use of splints made of plastic, which is placed on the lower or upper row of teeth;
- the use of the special plates in the sky, it has a ramp surface;
- the apparatus of the crowns having a plane with the calculated slope;
- the limiters of opening of the mouth.
Before using these prostheses for diseases of the temporomandibular joint are conducting a study of the individual characteristics of the patient’s jaw, including the dental and other prostheses. Stages and duration of treatment depend on the clinical picture and the depth of the lesion of the joints of the lower jaw.
If the patient is diagnosed with a decrease of the bite or abrasion of the teeth, require the use of prostheses. The treatment begins only after the normalization of mandible position. This is achieved through the use of aligners made of plastic. The correctness of the implementation of the prosthesis is checked using x-rays, and if necessary, a correction. After applying the Kappa within 2-4 months of pain and other symptoms of the illness, patients usually disappear. For achieving such a result, permanent dentures are made.
Options of physiotherapy
The patient is advised to perform a complex of special exercises, which lead to normal smoothness and accuracy of movements of the mandible, reduced masticatory muscles. When using complex treatment is a big role playing methods of surgical intervention. They involve surgery on the teeth and joints of the patient.
Physiotherapeutic ways of dealing with the disease of temporomandibular joint:
- the use of electrophoresis;
- the use of galvanizing;
- therapeutic massage.
By electrophoresis using a 10% solution of novocaine and potassium iodide. For galvanization applies a special instrument. Therapeutic massage is prescribed to the patients during both the treatment of, and after the main treatment.
After the patient’s discharge from the hospital the doctors continue throughout the month to monitor his condition to check the correctness of selected methods of therapy. The patient is recommended once a week to come in for a checkup to the clinic. Treatment of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint — a fairly lengthy process, and the sooner the patient to see a doctor, the faster you get rid of the disease.