Osteoporosis 1 degree: the treatment of the clinic, the etiology of the disease
Diseases of musculoskeletal system occupy a special place in the overall morbidity of the population. This group includes many of nosological forms, which differ from each other according to the clinical manifestations and mechanism of development. The greatest danger comes from this pathology, such as osteoporosis. There are several stages of the disease. Osteoporosis 1 degree, the treatment of which is so necessary, is able to progress. In the result the bones lose their strength and become brittle. All this contributes to more frequent fractures.
Osteoporosis is not easy to recognize. It may be a syndrome of some other pathology, in this case we are talking about secondary osteoporosis. When the first symptoms of the disease the person should immediately consult a doctor, as the pathology progresses steadily and may lead to disability. It is necessary to consider in more detail what are the etiology, clinic and treatment of this disease.
What is the osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a systemic disease or syndrome, which occurs in the chronic form and is characterized by reduction in bone density, increase of their fragility as a result of violation of metabolic processes in bone tissue. It is known that bones are constantly undergoing a process of tissue destruction and building new ones. In the first case we are talking about catabolic processes, while the second — about the anabolic.
Osteoporosis is characterized by a predominance of catabolism, that is, the destruction of the tissues. The cases of fracture increase. Worldwide each year from osteoporosis suffer tens of millions of people.
Are different forms of osteoporosis. It is divided into 2 large groups: primary and secondary. Primary develops on the background of natural processes occurring in the body, and the secondary is the result of injuries and other diseases.
The primary form includes juvenile, senile, postmenopausal and idiopathic osteoporosis. The juvenile form is more common in children. Postmenopauzalny characteristic of women, it develops due to reduced synthesis of the hormone estradiol. As for the elderly, they are more likely to suffer from senile osteoporosis. Often it leads to death. The secondary form in most cases is formed by people with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lung disease, thyroid disease, ankylosing spondylitis. Very often the bones are affected in malignant tumors.
The degree of disease and etiological factors
There are 4 degrees of osteoporosis. Pathology of 1 degree is characterized by the fact that there are no major changes in the structure of bone tissue. This borderline. At this stage the patient can not feel discomfort and not to make any complaints. Since the second stage, all changes dramatically. If 1 degree of osteoporosis frequent fractures are absent, then in the second stage, there are already certain preconditions for this.
Osteoporosis can develop for different reasons, they can be divided into several groups:
- due to the way of life;
- associated with other diseases.
Osteoporosis is a genetic predisposition. If close relatives had similar pathology, the risk increases. Of great importance are and some genetic defects, for example, intolerance to milk and dairy products. They contains calcium necessary to build bone tissue.
Risk factor is age: the older a person is, the higher the probability to get sick. Found that women suffer from this disease much more often than men. In women is more common osteoporosis of the knee joint.
Endocrinological causes of disease include disruption of the synthesis of hormones, later menarche, diabetes. Are also important features of the human Constitution. By the predisposing factors include: Smoking, poor nutrition (particularly vitamin D deficiency), lack of exercise, drinking large quantities of coffee and alcohol, taking certain medications (corticosteroids).
At the initial stage of pathology development, it is recommended conservative treatment. The main goal is prevention of disease progression.
Non-pharmacological therapeutic measures
To treat osteoporosis it is necessary in the early stages. At 1 stage of disease treatment should be aimed at the normalization of metabolic processes and the strengthening of bones. This prevents the progression of disease. The treatment can be pharmacological and non-pharmacological.
In the latter case we are talking about diet, exercise therapy, massage and other methods. Treatment should be limited to one — to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. An important condition — the cessation of Smoking and alcohol consumption. Treatment involves the optimization of the power of the sick person.
Regardless of the stage of the disease the diet should ensure intake of sufficient calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. the Latter contains a large number of fish and meat. Vitamin D is produced in the sun, so the patient is recommended to walk more in the sun. You need to strike a balance between fluoride and calcium. The ratio of calcium and fluorine should be 1:1,5. The optimal source of calcium — dairy products. The diet should include natural foods that are rich in zinc, manganese, boron, copper, and various vitamins. It is necessary to limit the consumption of salt.
The treatment of this disease of the bone involves the use of therapeutic exercises. It provides the load on the musculoskeletal system, thereby improving the blood supply to the bones and metabolic processes. Medical-gymnastic complex appointed by the doctor individually. That treatment can be most effective, it is also necessary to increase the amount of physical activity. Gymnastic exercises are held daily, resulting in about a month can significantly increase bone mass.
In treatment massage. It prevents the progression of the disease, thus improving blood flow in the bones and muscles of the sick person. The doctor may advise the patient sun. They suggest visiting the beaches and other places to increase exposure. Crucial exception of exposure to precipitating factors.
Treatment of osteoporosis can be etiological, pathogenetic and symptomatic. In the first case it is necessary to cure the underlying disease that led to the development of osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment aimed at pain management. At the first stage of the disease pain is often absent, so painkillers are rarely used.
The most effective method of therapy is pathogenetic, it aims at strengthening the bone and improving metabolism. Today, there are various groups of drugs. The first of these means of suppressing bone resorption. It may be the drugs of strontium, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, drugs based on strontium. The course of treatment for them can be several months or even years.
The second category includes tools that enhance the metabolism in bone tissue. It includes vitamin D, hydroxyapatite in the complex with the protein ossein. To improve the formation of bone tissue, is assigned to the growth hormone (or salts of fluorine). In appointing those or other drugs the physician should take into account contraindications and the patient’s age.
Osteoporosis is a dangerous disease that can take years. First degree often develops unnoticed, but the treatment should be carried out already at this stage to avoid complications. Prevention of osteoporosis involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle, timely treatment of other somatic pathology.