Classification of periodontitis: periodontitis

The role of classification is difficult to overestimate. In medicine this depends directly on the effectiveness of treatment: the sooner the disease is identified, the easier it will be to cope. Unfortunately, today not all health problems have a uniform and detailed classification that generates a lot of controversy among physicians. One of the diseases is periodontitis. About the classifications and we will discuss below.

First of all, it should be noted that all existing classifications of periodontitis is not only similar to each other but also have very strong contradictions. For example, in our country and the former Soviet Union is still in the course of the secretion of serous and purulent, acute and chronic forms of the disease before us. From these classifications declined in many countries and replaced them with more modern. Does not solve the problem and adopted the world health organization (who) classification. This is due, primarily, to the fact that not all medical centers have high-precision diagnostic equipment.
Currently, the classification of periodontitis is carried out by many different characteristics, which the experts did not agree on this issue. In our country uses two systems: the first one developed by the world health organization (who), and the second — G. I. Chelishchev. Below we consider not only these classifications, and others adopted in other countries. But first, let’s deal with what constitutes this disease.

What is periodontitis

Periodontitis is a disease in which occurs in the periodontal inflammatory process. In turn, the periodontium is a connective tissue present at the place between the tooth and the alveolar bone, also called bone bed. The periodontium has a great influence not only on the state of the mouth, but on all human health. The purpose of this cloth is, first, to reduce the load on the tooth in the process of chewing of food and, secondly, it as a uniform distribution on the bone.

The causes of periodontitis

The most common factors of occurrence of the considered diseases are:

  • Infection. In this case we are dealing with periodontal disease of an infectious nature. It is also divided into several groups:
  1. interdentally due to lack of proper treatment of pulpitis or delay seeking help with this disease;
  2. extrarenally arising due to spread of infection in sinusitis, osteomyelitis, and other similar diseases.
  • Improper treatment of other diseases. Very often, to eliminate the pulp used drugs, featuring a very aggressive compound, for example, toothpaste, which includes phenol, formaldehyde and arsenic. In this treatment a high probability of penetration of the active drug substance in the periodontium and, as a consequence, the beginning of the inflammatory process.
  • Seal. If the seal installation was carried out unprofessionally, then to the nearby tissues after some time can start to become inflamed and will need not only to replace but also to cure because of illiteracy doctor periodont.
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Thus, the prevention of such serious diseases as periodontitis, are regular visits to the dentist — at least 2 times a year.

Classification based on the cause

Classification of periodontitis by factors of appearance is one of the most often occurring today. Based on this characteristic of the considered disease is divided into the following groups:

Infectious. The cause is an infection. Most often it occurs as a complication of pulpitis and caries. May be apical, marginal, and spread to the adjacent tooth.
Traumatic. Arises due to various mechanical injuries, for example, by careless use of hard foods (nuts), shock, injury. Also with traumatic periodontitis encounter people who are accustomed to chew writing implements as well as those who incorrectly put the filling or crown.
Medication. Appears incorrect use of medicines, in particular, the violation of their dosage, as well as in the treatment of inappropriate means.

How accurate will be the cause of the disease directly depends on the effectiveness of his treatment. Therefore, the above classification of periodontitis is crucial.

Apical periodontitis

Apical periodontitis is diagnosed in the majority of cases. The name of the disease is due to place of its appearance — on the top of the tooth root. However, this inflammation does not end there: with the passage of time in the absence of proper treatment it affects the entire periodontium.

Apical periodontitis can be divided into the following groups:

  • infectious and non-infectious;
  • chronic and acute.

In case of acute apical periodontitis are most striking symptoms. The main ones are:

  • severe pain that can be described as sharp and throbbing;
  • their reinforcement by the end of the day even with a slight pressure on the tooth;
  • pain in adjacent tooth areas — temple, eye, ear, and neck;
  • swelling on the side of the face where the aching tooth;
  • swelling of the gums;
  • her redness;
  • loose tooth;
  • enlarged submandibular lymph nodes, with pressure on that pain is felt;
  • the increase in body temperature to subfebrile values;
  • General weakness.

If you postpone a visit to the dentist, then all of the above symptoms will increase over time and formed an abscess. In this case, to treat the disease will be much more difficult.

In chronic apical disease symptoms appear, then disappear. The characteristic signs of this form of the disease are:

  • severe pain in the process of eating;
  • unpleasant smell from the mouth;
  • the appearance of a fistula on the gums.
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Classification Lukomsky

The types of periodontitis that are allocated to I. G. Lukomsky, were recognized and used in the work of the overwhelming majority of modern dentists. This classification involves the allocation in the two disease forms: acute and chronic.

The acute form

The first of the above forms of periodontitis has the following symptoms:

  1. An active inflammatory process in the gums, which affects a very large part of it.
  2. Severe swelling adjacent to the tooth tissues.
  3. Violation of the dentition.

In the absence of proper treatment, you receive:

  • the pain of pulsating character;
  • the increase in submandibular lymph nodes;
  • the increase in body temperature to subfebrile values;
  • swelling of the gums;
  • swelling of the cheek where the affected area;
  • swelling of the face.

If not treated acute form of periodontitis, it likely goes into a chronic. Despite the fact that in this case the symptoms will be less pronounced the problem will make itself felt regularly and to cope with the disease would be very problematic.

The acute phase of periodontitis I. G. Lukomsky is also divided into two parts:

  1. Serous. When it said painful and some discomfort when pressing on the tooth. Very often with serous periodontitis the patient feels a sense of fullness. Symptoms increases in a few days.
  2. Purulent. It is characterized by severe pain of a pulsating character. They are growing not only in the moment when a person touches the tooth, but when he just opens and closes his mouth. Also, very often in this periodontitis there is swelling of soft tissues, increasing the submandibular lymph nodes and an increase in body temperature to subfebrile values.


For both of the above forms of periodontitis characteristic chills and General malaise.

The chronic form

The vast majority of cases of chronic forms occur if not treated periodontitis. Classification of the disease according to I. G. Lukomsky involves the following symptoms in this situation:

  • Mild pain that is felt only when tapped on the tooth.
  • Changing the shade of the enamel is a disease of the tooth.

In the chronic form of periodontitis, as in sharp, also divided into several groups. These include:

Granulating periodontitis. The discomfort in the gums and redness, slight pain, regular fistula and suppuration, the formation of granular tissue — the main symptoms of this disease. Sometimes inflamed submandibular lymph nodes.
Granulomatous periodontitis. The name of this illness was due to the fact that when it around the periodontal tissues appears granuloma. She, in turn, represents a cavity, which sheath is the fibrous tissue, and the content — granulation. Often in this disease, the fibrous tissue grows into the periodontal. In the most difficult cases formed a cyst.
Fibrous periodontitis. In this situation a person is dealing with the extension of the periodontium. And to experience this problem anywhere (this occurs most often at the top of the tooth). When fibrous periodontitis the patient feels no pain, but did not feel the tooth. For this disease characterized by damage to the periodontal and bad breath. His identify is extremely rare due to the lack of bright symptoms throughout the development of the disease.
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Exacerbation of chronic forms of

In chronic periodontitis, the symptoms are manifested from time to time. The main ones are:

  • a swelling in the patient’s tooth;
  • the fistula and abscess;
  • pain.

If time does not start treatment of an exacerbation of chronic periodontitis, you can face serious consequences, such as abscess, sepsis, abscess, etc. it is important not only quickly to seek help, but also to choose a real professional, who will prescribe an effective treatment.

Treatment of periodontitis

Treatment of periodontitis is carried out as conservatively or by surgical intervention in chronic forms the most serious cases. The conservative method involves, primarily, the reorganization of the affected tooth. Then held his purification (and channels) from carious lesions, treatment of painful region of the special antiseptic compounds, and the seal installation.

It should be noted that surgery is not always a bad tooth removed. If the doctor follows the most advanced techniques, he can save the tooth and remove only the damaged periodontal tissues. It is therefore important to choose the right dentist — find a real professional.

The current many classifications of periodontitis suggests that the use of any one of them is not acceptable. The fact that she simply would not meet all the requirements of modern medicine. It is therefore important to have a single system that could be used by all doctors around the world. Unfortunately, periodontitis at the moment, it has not, but it is hoped that very soon the scientists will still come to a consensus on this issue.