Periostitis of the upper and lower jaw: symptoms, treatment

Periostitis of the maxilla and mandible refers to the common inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region. Its symptoms are obvious, and the treatment has a favorable outcome.

Inflammation of the periosteum, which is manifested by the change of the shape of the face and severe pain in the vernacular is called flux. Although an official medical diagnoses is no such term.

A large number of people, especially those who carefully monitors the condition of the teeth, at least once in life, faced with periostitis. The patient’s condition while weakened due to the severe pain that occurs in response to the formation of purulent exudate. To cope with early disease will help dental surgeon.

Description of periostitis of the upper and lower jaw

Called periostitis inflammation of the periosteum, it is a thin connective tissue lining the bone surface. While it is thickening and flaking. In the space between the bone and the periosteum accumulates purulent or serous fluid. The disease is characterized by severe, sometimes unbearable, pain, deterioration of health, fever up to subfebrile values.

Periostitis of the jaw affects people of all ages, but in children is much rarer. This is due to the fact that it is a consequence of periodontitis, which was not timely cured. Infection of the tooth cavity through the opening at the root apex penetrates the periodontal tissue, where the inflammation spread to the periosteum.

But the first and noticeable symptoms are swelling of the cheeks. Depending on, the inflammation on the upper or lower jaw, the localization of the edema is different.

When periostitis of upper jaw swelling may include:

  1. Vestibular.
  2. From the sky.
  3. Of bilateral diffuse inflammation.

The face is swollen the area from the wing of the nose, the lower edge of the orbit and the cheek. The danger of the maxillary periostitis is associated with the probability of transition of inflammation in the sinuses bone.

Periostitis of the lower jaw is more common. The configuration of the face changes because of the localization of the swelling in the region of the jaw angle or in the submandibular space.

Causes

The most common form of periostitis – inflammation caused by affected teeth, which is called odontogenic. A healthy tooth may not cause the development of swelling of the periosteum. In order to start the inflammatory process, the presence of microorganisms.

If the tooth and gums around it are healthy, the bacteria do not penetrate inside. When poor-quality treatment of the tooth cavity, the presence of periodontal pockets, dental treatment may be involvement of the periosteum.

The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are well studied and confirmed by clinical practice, so the treatment of periostitis is plain.

Why is there a periostitis jaw?:

  • complicated dental caries – the source of the spread of pathogenic microbes. Through micro canals they penetrate into the tooth, where through the apical hole apply to Kolokolnaya tissue;
  • chronic apical periodontitis is a frequent cause of the formation of abscess. Long-existing pathogenic microflora in the system of channels is gradually moving inland, in the absence of proper treatment initially affects the soft tissue and, later, the periosteum;
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent inhabitant of the oral cavity. With the weakening of immunity, its population increases and becomes a cause of inflammation of the periosteum.
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In addition to inflammation of the periosteum, emerging from the teeth, there are other reasons. However, their prevalence is much lower:

  • traumatic lesions of oral cavity organs;
  • the spread of infection through the blood vessels;
  • lymphogenous lesions of the periosteum;
  • abscess, occurs when tuberculosis;
  • some systemic diseases can give complication on the periosteum of the jaw.

Video: more about periostitis of the jaw from the dentist.

Types

Odontogenic periostitis of the jaw, as with any other disease, has its own classification of time and the nature of the flow. To make an accurate diagnosis only by the dentist to determine the exact doctor prescribes to do x-rays of the problem area, which the doctor can assess the condition of the tooth roots and periapical region. Thickening of the periosteum in the first three days in the picture is not displayed.

► The type of the process periostitis is subdivided:

  1. Sharp — has a pronounced symptoms. Swelling side of face, severe throbbing pain, pus formation.
  2. Chronic, indolent, with occasional exacerbations.

► By type of exudate acute abscess is:

  1. Serous — most often develops on the background of apical periodontitis, thus there is infiltration of the periosteum and its thickening.
  2. Purulent — severe, patients concerned about bursting pain, worse from hot. In some cases, the pus finds its way independently through education fistulous. If this does not happen, the increasing surge of pain makes you turn to the dentist. It will produce dissection of the periosteum and give the outflow of the contents.

Often in the lower jaw develops retromolar abscess, resulting from difficult eruption of wisdom teeth. Purulent exudate is difficult to go out alone, as it is associated with anatomical features of this region.

Symptoms

The signs vary depending on the form of the disease. The nature of the development of the disease affects the immune system, as well as the existence of common ailments. Present common symptoms, which allows to distinguish between a jaw abscess from other inflammatory processes in the jaws.

It develops gradually. Initially, there is a slight swelling of the gums and pain when pressing on the tooth. If within the first day not to go to the dentist, surgeon, the next morning is likely to Wake up with a swollen cheek.

► Symptoms of periostitis with associated serous infiltration:

  • gingival mucosa becomes red;
  • on a transitional fold from the gum to the cheek there is a swelling, which is painful when touching it;
  • mild pain;
  • body temperature may rise to 37 °C;
  • there is asymmetry of the face due to investirovanie soft tissues;
  • lymph nodes located under the jaw or behind the ears, grow in size.

► When joins purulent infection, course of disease becomes more severe, and the patient’s condition deteriorates:

  • the General condition of the body worsens, symptoms of intoxication;
  • body temperature increases to 38 °C;
  • swelling of side of face;
  • the radiation of pain along the branches of the trigeminal nerve;
  • the pulsation in the swelling;
  • you may experience the fistulous;
  • when pressing on the swollen transitional fold is present fluctuation is a phenomenon of sloshing.

Photo

Diagnosis

To establish the correct diagnosis, a dental surgeon carefully collects anamnesis, performs intra-oral and external examination, and also reviews the results of radiography. A similar clinical picture has a number of other dental diseases, so the dentist is important to Orient in symptomatology and clinical picture of various diseases.

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Differential diagnosis is based on finding similarities and distinguishing features between other purulent-inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity.

  • apical periodontitis in the acute stage of purulent focus is on the tip of the root. External changes do not occur, but the x-ray picture is defined by a rounded depression of the bone tissue. It has clear contours, or can be blurred configuration. When eating and closing of the jaws occurs, it feels like the tooth is extended and prevents the closing of the mouth. This gives rise to pain when pressed. The resulting fistula allows the discharge of pus;
  • cellulitis and abscess – a serious illness that strongly affect health. Common cause is a bad tooth. Cellulitis is a diffuse inflammation, abscess — limited process. Affected area infiltered, while the skin over it changes the color to red, there is a Shine. When abscess of external changes on the skin are not observed;
  • the sialadenitis – inflammation of salivary glands. On palpation the gland is determined by its density, and in the oral cavity at the location of the duct there is inflammation, and the secretion of saliva is difficult because of the compression of the excretory tubule swollen soft fabrics;
  • osteomyelitis – an inflammatory disease of the bone. Upon inspection of the radiographs reveals the basic distinctive signs of bone destruction. At later stages formed a sequestrum.

Periostitis of the jaw and its treatment

The source of the disease in odontogenic periostitis is periodontitis tooth. In remission, the disease is almost not brings discomfort, therefore many patients do not rush to the doctor. However, the infection from the cavity of the tooth will not be lost.

With the weakening of immune protection gives apical periodontitis, a complication of acute periostitis. The disease does not go away on their own, so sitting at home waiting for the improvement is not worth it, because it will lead to serious health consequences.

Treatment involved a dental surgeon, so at the first symptoms of periostitis should go to see him. Early detection of the disease allows to be limited to therapeutic treatment with antibiotics.

But we should not self-medicate and take any antibacterial drug, available in the home medicine Cabinet, as this is a serious drug, and its use is strictly according to instructions and only for medical purpose.

To correct and treat the signs of periostitis are the methods:

  1. Therapeutic treatment based on antibacterial medications and inside a local treatment of signs of inflammation in the oral cavity.
  2. Surgical treatment consists in carrying out pristatomi – dissection of the periosteum to release the pus. In some cases the causative tooth must be extracted.
  3. Traditional medicine, based on protivovospalitelno action of herbs.

Surgery

The operation allows you to clean the cavity from pathological content and to prevent purulent fusion of tissues spread inland.

For the treatment of periostitis of the jaw is used to cut the periosteum, which is conducted as follows:

  • anesthesia – anesthesia of the affected area is done with modern drugs articaine or lidocaine series. You should know that in the case of severe purulent investirovaniya, painkillers are not at full strength, as in the hearth with inflammatory phenomena formed an acidic environment, neutralizing active ingredient of the drug;
  • pristatome – cut on a transitional fold by grasping the periosteum to release pus and relieve the patient’s condition;
  • wound drainage – installing a glove of rubber in the incision to enable drainage of pus over the ensuing days.
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On the basis of x-ray pictures, the dentist decides on the desirability of the causative tooth and the possibility of further treatment to eliminate the source of infection.

Traditional methods

Traditional medicines are widely used because of their availability. The action is based on anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties of plants.

A disease like abscess, cannot be cured at home without the help of a professional, because traditional methods only temporarily affect the symptoms of the disease, lessening its severity. To cure disease should remove the source.

In unusual situations, when the pain caught by surprise, the recipes of alternative medicine is able to alleviate the patient’s condition. At the first opportunity you need to visit a physician to provide skilled care.

  1. Soda and salt rinse is the most commonly used method to reduce swelling and pain.
  2. A decoction of marigold, sage or chamomile helps to combat inflammation.
  3. Compress with the cold to reduce swelling and pain.

The consequences

If periostitis of the jaw is not treated in time, it leads to dangerous consequences. May be the following complications:

  1. Abscess or cellulitis.
  2. Osteomyelitis.
  3. Sepsis.
  4. Mediastenit.

When there is no possibility to promptly visit the dentist, the acute phase of periostitis flows into a chronic, long-term which will be a source of infection in the body.

Prevention

The basis of preventive measures – continuous monitoring of maintenance of oral health:

  • daily hygiene of the oral cavity;
  • preventive dental check-UPS twice a year;
  • professional hygiene;
  • early treatment of carious cavities;
  • qualitative treatment of pulpitis and periodontitis;
  • systematic treatment from a periodontist in case of problems with the gums.

Disease of the periosteum begins without symptoms and almost imperceptibly. To monitor the condition of the roots of the teeth is recommended to perform x-ray examination once a year.

Video: how to treat periostitis of jaw (flux) in the program «Live healthy» Elena malyshevoy.

Further questions

► Code for ICD-10

Periostitis of the jaw, international classification of diseases is number K10.2 «Inflammatory diseases of the jaws».

► What to do in case of periostitis of the jaw bones in children?

If the child had swelling, however, he complains of pain, you should immediately go to the doctor. Self-medication is strictly contraindicated, as it can hide some symptoms of illness that leads to complications.